Tuesday, October 18, 2011

Towards the Original First Letter to the Corinthians (= Letter to the Alexandrians) Chapter 1

1 Corinthians 1


1 Paul, called to be an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, and our brother Sosthenes,

2 To the church of God in Corinth, to those sanctified in Christ Jesus and called to be his holy people, together with all those everywhere who call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ—their Lord and ours:

3 Grace and peace to you from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.


4 I always thank my God for you because of his grace given you in Christ Jesus.

5 For in him you have been enriched in every way—with all kinds of speech and with all knowledge—

6 God thus confirming our testimony about Christ among you.

7 Therefore you do not lack any spiritual gift as you eagerly wait for our Lord Jesus Christ to be revealed.

8 He will also keep you firm to the end, so that you will be blameless on the day of our Lord Jesus Christ.

9 God is faithful, who has called you into fellowship with his Son, Jesus Christ our Lord.


10 I appeal to you, brothers and sisters, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that all of you agree with one another in what you say and that there be no divisions among you, but that you be perfectly united in mind and thought.

11 My brothers and sisters, some from Chloe’s household have informed me that there are quarrels among you.

12 What I mean is this: One of you says, “I follow Paul”; another, “I follow Apollos”; another, “I follow Cephas”; still another, “I follow Christ.”

13 Christ has not been divided. Was Paul crucified for you? Were you baptized in the name of Paul?

14 I thank God that I did not baptize any of you except Crispus and Gaius,

15 so no one can say that you were baptized in my name.

16 (Yes, I also baptized the household of Stephanas; beyond that, I don’t remember if I baptized anyone else.)

17 For Christ did not send me to baptize, but to preach the gospelnot with wisdom and eloquence, lest the mystery be emptied of its power.


18 For the word of truth is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God.

19 For it is written: “I will destroy the wisdom of the wise; the intelligence of the intelligent I will frustrate.”

20 Where is the wise man? Where is the teacher of the law? Where is the philosopher of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of the world?

21 For after that, in the wisdom of God, the world by wisdom which spoke by the prophets knew not him, it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe.

22 For the Hebrews seek signs and the Greeks seek after wisdom.

23 but we preach Christ crucified: a stumbling block to Jews and foolishness to Greeks,

24 but to those whom who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ is the power of God and the wisdom of God.

25 For the foolishness of God is wiser than human wisdom, and the weakness of God is stronger than human strength.

26 Brothers and sisters, think of what you were when you were called. Not many of you were wise by human standards; not many were influential; not many were of noble birth.

27 But God chose the foolish things of the world to shame the wise; God chose the weak things of the world to shame the strong.

28 God chose the lowly things of this world and the despised things—and the things that are not—to nullify the things that are,

29 so that no one may boast before him.

30 It is because of him that you are in Christ Jesus, who has become for us wisdom from God—that is, our righteousness, holiness and redemption.

31 Therefore, as it is written: “Let the one who boasts boast in the Lord.”

Clement's Witness to the Section:

It would seem that Clement and many other early witnesses (Theodotus) had a text which identified the apostle explicitly referencing the gospel = 'the true word' rather than the 'doctrine of the cross.'  The letter was introduced as a kind of midrash on the gospel narrative.  Yet it is absolutely critical to see 1 Tim 1.3 and 6.3's complete identification of  διδασκαλία with gospel (itself channeling Galatians chapter 1).  When Clement then speaks of a 'μυστικὴν διδασκαλίαν' (see Strom 6.15 cited below) it is a clear reflection not only of the 'secret' or 'mystic gospel' of the Letter to Theodore but moreover that 1 Corinthians is itself about to segue in the next chapter to a discussion of the apostle's knowledge of said text.  

we have deemed it right to yield to your injunction, and to furnish an answer to the treatise which you sent us, but which I do not think that any one, although only a short way advanced in philosophy, will allow to be a True Word, as Celsus has entitled it. [Origen, Against Celsus, Preface]

θεοῦ δὲ <σοφίαν>  εἴρηκεν ὁ ἀπόστολος τὴν κατὰ τὸν κύριον διδασκαλίαν,  σοφίαν ἵνα δείξῃ τὴν ἀληθῆ φιλοσοφίαν δι'  υἱοῦ παραδιδομένην [Clement Stromata,2 ]

The apostle designates the doctrine which is according to the Lord, "the wisdom of God," in order to show that the true philosophy has been communicated by the Son.

αὐτοτελὴς μὲν οὖν καὶ ἀπροσδεὴς ἡ κατὰ τὸν σωτῆρα διδασκαλία, δύναμις οὖσα καὶ
σοφία τοῦ θεοῦ,  προσιοῦσα δὲ φιλοσοφία ἡ Ἑλληνικὴ οὐ δυνατωτέραν ποιεῖ τὴν
ἀλήθειαν []

But the teaching, which is according to the Saviour, is complete in itself and without defect, being "the power and wisdom of God;" and the Hellenic philosophy does not, by its approach, make the truth more powerful

ἑνὸς γὰρ κυρίου ἐνέργεια, ὅς ἐστι δύναμις καὶ σοφία τοῦ θεοῦ, ὅ τε νόμος τό τε εὐαγγέλιον []

 For both the law and the Gospel are the workmanship of one Lord, who is "the power and wisdom of God"

φέρε οὖν εἰ ὁ κύριος ἀλήθεια καὶ σοφία καὶ δύναμις θεοῦ, ὥσπερ οὖν ἐστι, δειχθείη ὅτι τῷ ὄντι γνωστικὸς ὁ τοῦτον ἐγνωκὼς καὶ τὸν πατέρα τὸν αὐτοῦ δι' αὐτοῦ []

Well, then, if the Lord is the truth, and wisdom, and power of God, as in truth He is, it is shown that the real Gnostic is he that knows Him, and His Father by Him.

. ἤδη δὲ καὶ ἡ οἰκονομία πᾶσα ἡ περὶ τὸν κύριον προφητευθεῖσα παραβολὴ ὡς ἀληθῶς φαίνεται τοῖς μὴ τὴν ἀλήθειαν ἐγνωκόσιν, ὅταν τις τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ τὰ πάντα πεποιηκότος σάρκα ἀνειληφότα καὶ ἐν μήτρᾳ παρθένου κυοφορηθέντα,  καθὸ γεγέννηται τὸ αἰσθητὸν αὐτοῦ σαρκίον, ἀκολούθως δέ,  καθὸ γέγονεν τοῦτο, πεπονθότα καὶ ἀνεσταμένον ὃ μὲν λέγῃ, οἳ δὲ ἀκούωσιν, Ἰουδαίοις μὲν σκάνδαλον, Ἕλλησι δὲ μωρίαν, ὥς φησιν ὁ ἀπόστολος. διανοιχθεῖσαι δὲ αἱ γραφαὶ καὶ τοῖς ὦτα ἔχουσιν ἐμφήνασαι τὸ ἀληθὲς αὐτὸ ἐκεῖνο, ὃ πέπονθεν ἡ σάρξ, ἣν ἀνείληφεν ὁ κύριος, δύναμιν θεοῦ καὶ σοφίαν καταγγέλ λουσιν.  ἐπὶ πᾶσί τε τὸ παραβολικὸν εἶδος τῆς γραφῆς, ἀρχαιότατον ὄν,  ὡς παρεστήσαμεν,  εἰκότως παρὰ τοῖς προφήταις μάλιστα ἐπλεόνασεν,  ἵνα δὴ καὶ τοὺς φιλοσόφους τοὺς παρ'  Ἕλλησι καὶ τοὺς παρὰ τοῖς ἄλλοις βαρβάροις σοφοὺς ἠγνοηκέναι τὸ ἅγιον ἐπιδείξῃ πνεῦμα τὴν ἐσομένην τοῦ κυρίου παρουσίαν καὶ τὴν ὑπ'  αὐτοῦ παραδοθησο μένην μυστικὴν διδασκαλίαν. [ - 6]

And now also the whole economy which prophesied of the Lord appears indeed a parable to those who know not the truth, when one speaks and the rest hear that the Son of God -- of Him who made the universe -- assumed flesh, and was conceived in the virgin's womb (as His material body was produced), and subsequently, as was the case, suffered and rose again, being "to the Jews a stumbling-block, and to the Greeks foolishness," as the apostle says.  But on the Scriptures being opened up, and declaring the truth to those who have ears, they proclaim the very suffering endured by the flesh, which the Lord assumed, to be "the power and wisdom of God." And finally, the parabolic style of Scripture being of the greatest antiquity, as we have shown, abounded most, as was to be expected, in the prophets, in order that the Holy Spirit might show that the philosophers among the Greeks, and the wise men among the Barbarians besides, were ignorant of the future coming of the Lord, and of the mystic teaching that was to be delivered by Him.

The Early Patristic References 

1 Cor 1:1 - Clement, Hypotyposeis (p.196, l.8) BP1

1 Cor 1:3 - My preliminary remarks on the preceding epistle called me away from treating of its superscription, for I was sure that another opportunity would occur for considering the matter, it being of constant recurrence, and in the same form too, in every epistle. The point, then, is, that it is not (the usual) health which the apostle prescribes for those to whom he writes, but “grace and peace.” I do not ask, indeed, what a destroyer of Judaism has to do with a formula which the Jews still use. For to this day they salute each other  with the greeting of “peace,” and formerly in their Scriptures they did the same. But I understand him by his practice 5390 plainly enough to have corroborated the declaration of the Creator: “How beautiful are the feet of them that bring glad tidings of good, who preach the gospel of peace!” 5391 For the herald of good, that is, of God’s “grace” was well aware that along with it “peace” also was to be proclaimed. 5392 Now, when he announces these blessings as “from God the Father and the Lord Jesus,” 5393 he uses titles that are common to both, and which are also adapted to the mystery of our faith; 5394 and I suppose it to be impossible accurately to determine what God is declared to be the Father and the Lord Jesus, unless (we consider) which of their accruing attributes are more suited to them severally. 5395 First, then, I assert that none other than the Creator and Sustainer of both man and the universe can be acknowledged as Father and Lord; next, that to the Father also the title of Lord accrues by reason of His power, and that the Son too receives the same through the Father; then that “grace and peace” are not only His who had them published, but His likewise to whom offence had been given. For neither does grace exist, except after offence; nor peace, except after war. [Tertullian Against Marcion 5.5]

1 Cor 1.5 - Odes of Solomon - 5 (p.260, l.1) BP1

1 Cor 1.7 - Ignatius Smyrnaeans - p.106, l.1) BP1

1 Cor 1:9 - This is the faithful servant, who is praised by the Lord. And when it is said, "God is faithful," it is intimated that He is worthy to be believed when declaring aught. Now His Word declares; and "God" Himself is "faithful."  How, then, if to believe is to suppose, do the philosophers think that what proceeds from themselves is sure? [Clement of Alexandria Stromata 2.6]

1 Cor 1:9 -  And “God,” who is known to those who love, “is love,”as “God,” who by instruction is communicated to the faithful, “is faithful; . and we must be allied to Him by divine love: so that by like we may see like, hearing the word of truth guilelessly and purely, as children who obey us. [Clement of Alexandria Strom 5.1]
5 13 § 1 (p.334, l.18) BP1

1 Cor 1.9 - May I always have joy of you, if indeed I be worthy of it. It is therefore befitting that you should in every way glorify Jesus Christ, who hath glorified you, that by a unanimous obedience “ye may be perfectly joined together in the same mind, and in the same judgment, and may all speak the same thing concerning the same thing,”505 and that, being subject to the bishop and the presbytery, ye may in all respects be sanctified. [Ignatius, Ephesians 2]

1 Cor 1.9 -  Odes of Solomon 28 § 3 (p.358, l.2 - P) BP1

1 Cor 1.10 - Canon Muratorianus (p.7, l.10) BP1

1 Cor 1:10 - I therefore, yet not I, out the love of Jesus Christ, "entreat you that ye all speak the same thing, and that there be no divisions among you; but that ye be perfectly joined together in the same mind, and in the same judgment." [Ignatius to the Trallians]

1 Cor 1:10 - "that ye all speak the same thing, being of one mind, thinking the same thing, and walking by the same rule of faith," [Ignatius Philippians]

1 Cor 1:10 - "But you also oppose Scripture, seeing it expressly cries “Seek first the kingdom of heaven, and all these things shall be added unto you.” But if all things have been conferred on you, and all things allowed you, and “if all things are lawful, yet all things are not expedient,” says the apostle. God brought our race into communion by first imparting what was His own, when He gave His own Word, common to all, and made all things for all. All things therefore are common, and not for the rich to appropriate an undue share. That expression, therefore, “I possess, and possess in abundance: why then should I not enjoy?” is suitable neither to the man, nor to society. But more worthy of love is that: “I have: why should I not give to those who need?” For such an one—one who fulfils the command, “Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself”—is perfect. For this is the true luxury—the treasured wealth. But that which is squandered on foolish lusts is to be reckoned waste, not expenditure. [Clement Instructor 2:13]

1 Cor 1:10 - "And by so doing, he makes those to be not approved, who have fallen into heresies; more especially when with reproofs heexhorts men to turn away from such, teaching them that they should all speak and think the selfsame thing, 1 Corinthians 1:10 the very object which heresies do not permit." [Tertullian Prescription 5]  5 § 4 (p.191, l.11) BP1

1 Cor 1:10 - Although, even supposing that among intimate friends, so to speak, they did hold certaindiscussions, yet it is incredible that these could have been such as to bring in some other rule of faith, differing from and contrary to that which they were proclaiming through the Catholic churches, — as if they spoke of one God in the Church, (and) another at home, and described one substance of Christ, publicly, (and) another secretly, and announced one hope of the resurrection before all men, (and) another before the few; although they themselves, in their epistles, besought men that they would all speak one and the same thing, and that there should be no divisions and dissensions in the church,1 Corinthians 1:10 seeing that they, whether Paul or others, preached the same things. Moreover, they remembered (the words): Let your communication be yea, yea; nay, nay; for whatsoever is more than this comes of evil; Matthew 5:37 so that they were not to handle the gospel in a diversity of treatment. [Tertullian Prescription 26] 26 § 11 (p.208, l.28) BP1

1 Cor 1:10 - But since it is not in our power, according to the apostle's precept, to speak the same thing, that there be not schisms among us; yet, as far as we can, we strive to demonstrate the true condition of this argument, and to persuade turbulent men, even now, to mind their own business, as we shall even attain a great deal if they will at length acquiesce in this sound advice. And therefore we shall, as is needful, collect into one mass whatever passages of the Holy Scriptures are pertinent to this subject. And we shall manifestly harmonize, as far as possible, those which seem to be differing or of various meaning; and we shall to the extent of our poor ability examine both the utility and advantage of each method, that we may recommend to all the brethren, that the most wholesome form and peaceful custom be adopted in the Church. [Anonymous Treatise on Baptism 1]

1 Cor 1.10 Let my spirit be counted as nothing (περίψημα) for the sake of the cross, which is a stumbling-block to those that do not believe, but to us salvation and life eternal. “Where is the wise man? where the disputer?” 608 Where is the boasting of those who are styled prudent? For our God, Jesus Christ, was, according to the appointment 609 of God, conceived in the womb by Mary, of the seed of David, but by the Holy Ghost. He was born and baptized, that by His passion He might purify the water. [Ignatius, Ephesians 18]

1 Cor 1:10  For that fan they explain to be the cross (Stauros), which consumes, no doubt, all material2706 objects, as fire does chaff, but it purifies all them that are saved, as a fan does wheat. Moreover, they affirm that the Apostle Paul himself made mention of this cross in the following words: “The doctrine of the cross is to them that perish foolishness, but to us who are saved it is the power of God.”2707 And again: “God forbid that I should glory in anything2708 save in the cross of Christ, by whom the world is crucified to me, and I unto the world.” Irenaeus AH 1.3.2]

1 Cor 1.11 - Epiphanius Panarion (HOLL K., GCS 31 (1922), 5-210 ; 215-524) 42 12 § 3 (p.168, l.16) BP4  

1 Cor 1.11 - De recta in Deum fide   (p.16, l.23 - <) BP2  

1 Cor 1.12 - "Since the Apostle Paul blames the Corinthians because some were taking his name, or that of Apollos or Cephas, his name, or that of Apollos or Cephas, it is clear that the name of a bishop should not be used. The superior rather than the inferior name should be taken."  De recta in Deum fide   (p.18, l.3) BP2  

1 Cor 1.13 - "Christ has not been divided" Protrepticus  112 § 3 (p.180, l.11) BP1

1 Cor 1.13 - De recta in Deum fide (p.16, l.23 - <) BP2  

1 Cor 1.14 - Hypotyposeis  (p.196, l.23) BP1  

1 Cor 1.16 - Acta Pauli C  (p.30, l.2) BP1

1 Cor 1.17 - Epiphanius Panarion  73 6 § 3 (p.275, l.23) BP4

1 Cor 1.17 - In the first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: Christ sent me to preach, not in wisdom of discourse, lest the cross of Christ should become of no effect. For the word of the cross is foolishness to those who perish; but to those who are saved it is the power of God. For it is written, I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and I will reprove the prudence of the prudent. Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the disputer of this world? Hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world? Since indeed, in the wisdom of God, the world by wisdom knew not God, it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe. Cyprian of Carthage Ad Quirinum 3 69 (p.157, l.3 - < )) BP2

1 Cor 1:18 - “The cross of Christ,” he says, “is to them that perish foolishness; but unto such as shall obtain salvation, it is the power of God and the wisdom of God.” 5398 And then, that we may know from whence this comes, he adds: “For it is written, ‘I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and will bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent.’” 5399 Now, since these are the Creator’s words, and since what pertains to the doctrine 5400 of the cross he accounts as foolishness, therefore both the cross, and also Christ by reason of the cross, will appertain to the Creator, by whom were predicted the incidents of the cross.  But if 5401 the Creator, as an enemy, took away their wisdom in order that the cross of Christ, considered as his adversary, should be accounted foolishness, how by any possibility can the Creator have foretold anything about the cross of a Christ who is not His own, and of whom He knew nothing, when He published the prediction? [Tertullian Against Marcion 5.5]  5 5 § 5 (p.676, l.11) BP1  

1 Cor 1:18 - As, then, the magnet, repelling other matter, attracts iron alone by reason of affinity; so also books, though many read them, attract those alone who are capable of comprehending them. For the word of truth is to some "foolishness," and to others a "stumbling-block;" but to a few "wisdom." So also is the power of God found to be. But far from the Gnostic be envy. For it is for this reason also that he asks whether it be worse to give to the unworthy, or not commit to the worthy; and runs the risk, from his abundant love of communicating, not only to every one who is qualified, but sometimes also to one unworthy, who asks importunately; not on account of his entreaty (for he loves not glory), but on account of the persistency of the petitioner who bends his mind towards faith with copious entreaty. [Theodotus Excerpts 27]

1 Cor 1.18 - Paedagogus 1 16 § 3 (p.100, l.1) BP1  

1 Cor 1.19 - Justin Dialogue 38 § 2 (p.170, l.2) BP1

1 Cor 1:19 - This, I think, is signified by the utterance of the Saviour, "The foxes have holes, but the Son of man hath not where to lay His head." For on the believer alone, who is separated entirely from the rest, who by the Scripture are called wild beasts, rests the head of the universe, the kind and gentle Word, "who taketh the wise in their own craftiness. For the Lord knoweth the thoughts of the wise, that they axe vain;" the Scripture calling those the wise (sofous) who are skilled in words and arts, sophists (sofistas) Whence the Greeks also applied the denominative appellation of wise and sophists (sofoi sofistai) to those who were versed in anything Cratinus accordingly, having in the Archilochii enumerated the poets, said: "Such a hive of sophists have ye examined." And similarly Iophon, the comic poet, in Flute-playing Satyrs, says: "For there entered A band of sophists, all equipped." Of these and the like, who devote their attention to empty words, the divine Scripture most excellently says, "I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent." [Clement of Alexandria, Strom 1.3] 1 24 § 4 (p.16, l.7) BP1  

1 Cor 1:19 - And of such it is said, "I will destroy the wisdom of the wise: I will bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent." The apostle accordingly adds, "Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the disputer of this world?" setting in contradistinction to the scribes, the disputers of this world, the philosophers of the Gentiles. "Hath not God made foolish the wisdom of the world?" which is equivalent to, showed it to be foolish, and not true, as they thought. And if you ask the cause of their seeming wisdom, he will say, "because of the blindness of their heart;" since "in the wisdom of God," that is, as proclaimed by the prophets, "the world knew not," in the wisdom "which spake by the prophets," "Him," that is, God, -- "it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching" -- what seemed to the Greeks foolishness -- "to save them that believe. For the Jews require signs," in order to faith; "and the Greeks seek after wisdom," plainly those reasonings styled "irresistible," and those others, namely, syllogisms. "But we preach Jesus Christ crucified; to the Jews a stumbling-block," because, though knowing prophecy, they did not believe the event: "to the Greeks, foolishness;" for those who in their own estimation are wise, consider it fabulous that the Son of God should speak by man and that God should have a Son, and especially that that Son should have suffered. Whence their preconceived idea inclines them to disbelieve. For the advent of the Saviour did not make people foolish, and hard of heart, and unbelieving, but made them understanding, amenable to persuasion, and believing. But those that would not believe, by separating themselves from the voluntary adherence of those who obeyed, were proved to be without understanding, unbelievers and fools. "But to them who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ is the power of God, and the wisdom of God." Should we not understand (as is better) the words rendered, "Hath not God made foolish the wisdom of the world?" negatively: "God hath not made foolish the wisdom of the world?" -- so that the cause of their hardness of heart may not appear to have proceeded from God, "making foolish the wisdom of the world." For on all accounts, being wise, they incur greater blame in not believing the proclamation. For the preference and choice of truth is voluntary. But that declaration, "I will destroy the wisdom of the wise," declares Him to have sent forth light, by bringing forth in opposition the despised and contemned barbarian philosophy; as the lamp, when shone upon by the sun, is said to be extinguished, on account of its not then exert ing the same power. All having been therefore called, those who are willing to obey have been named "called." For there is no unright-eousness with God. Those of either race who have believed, are "a peculiar people." And in the Acts of the Apostles you will find this, word for word, "Those then who received his word were baptized;" but those who would not obey kept themselves aloof. To these prophecy says, "If ye be willing and hear me, ye shall eat the good things of the land;" proving that choice or refusal depends on ourselves. The apostle designates the doctrine which is according to the Lord, "the wisdom of God," in order to show that the true philosophy has been communicated by the Son. Further, he, who has a show of wisdom, has certain exhortations enjoined on him by the apostle: "That ye put on the new man, which after God is renewed in righteousness and true holiness. Wherefore, putting away lying, speak every man truth. Neither give place to the devil. Let him that stole, steal no more; but rather let him labour, working that which is good" (and to work is to labour in seeking the truth; for it is accompanied with rational well-doing), "that ye may have to give to him that has need," both of worldly wealth and of divine wisdom. For he wishes both that the word be taught, and that the money be put into the bank, accurately tested, to accumulate interest. Whence he adds, "Let no corrupt communication proceed out of your mouth," -- that is "corrupt communication" which proceeds out of conceit, -- "but that which is good for the use of edifying, that it may minister grace to the hearers." And the word of the good God must needs be good. And how is it possible that he who saves shall not be good? [Clement of Alexandria, Stromata 1.18] 1 88 § 1 (p.56, l.17) BP1; 1 89 § 2 (p.57, l.20) BP1  

1 Cor 1:19, 20 - Spiritually, therefore, the apostle writes respecting the knowledge of God,For now we see as through a glass, but then face to face. 1 Corinthians 13:12 For the vision of thetruth is given but to few. Accordingly, Plato says in the Epinomis, I do not say that it is possible for all to be blessed and happy; only a few. Whilst we live, I pronounce this to be the case. But there is agood hope that after death I shall attain all. To the same effect is what we find in Moses: No man shall see My face, and live. Exodus 33:20 For it is evident that no one during the period of life has been able to apprehend God clearly. But the pure in heart shall see God, Matthew 5:8 when they arrive at the final perfection. For since the soul became too enfeebled for the apprehension of realities, we needed a divine teacher. The Saviour is sent down— a teacher and leader in the acquisition of the good— the secret and sacred token of the great Providence. Where, then, is the scribe? Where is the searcher of this world? Hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world?1 Corinthians 1:20 it is said. And again, I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent, 1 Corinthians 1:19 plainly of those wise in their own eyes, and disputatious. Excellently therefore Jeremiah says, Thus says the Lord, Stand in the ways, and ask for the eternal paths, what is the good way, and walk in it, and you shall find expiation for your souls.Jeremiah 6:16 Ask, he says, and inquire of those who know, without contention and dispute. And on learning the way of truth, let us walk on the right way, without turning till we attain to what we desire. It was therefore with reason that the king of the Romans (his name was Numa), being aPythagorean, first of all men, erected a temple to Faith and Peace. And to Abraham, on believing, righteousness was reckoned. He, prosecuting the lofty philosophy of aerial phenomena, and the sublime philosophy of the movements in the heavens, was called Abram, which is interpreted sublime father. But afterwards, on looking up to heaven, whether it was that he saw the Son in the spirit, as some explain, or a glorious angel, or in any other way recognised God to be superior to the creation, and all the order in it, he receives in addition the Alpha, the knowledge of the one and only God, and is called Abraam, having, instead of a natural philosopher, become wise, and a lover of God. For it is interpreted, elect father of sound.  [Clement Stromata 5.1] 5 8 § 1 (p.330, l.21) BP1;   

1 Cor 1.19 - Epiphanius Panarion 42 11 § 8 (p.121, l.5 - *<) BP4; 42 12 § 3 (p.159, l.20 - *<) BP4; 42 12 § 3 (p.159, l.23) BP4; 76 33 § 4 (p.382, l.23 - < >) BP4

1 Cor 1.19 - Ignatius Ephesians 18 § 1 (p.87, l.19) BP1

1 Cor 1:19 - At this, philosophers, and heretics, and the very heathen, laugh and jeer. For “God hath chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wise”6084—that God, no doubt, who in reference to this very dispensation of His threatened long before that He would “destroy the wisdom of the wise.”6085Thanks to this simplicity of truth, so opposed to the subtlety and vain deceit of philosophy, we cannot possibly have any relish for such perverse opinions.  Then, if God “quickens us together with Christ, forgiving us our trespasses,”6086 we cannot suppose that sins are forgiven by Him against whom, as having been all along unknown, they could not have been committed. Now tell me, Marcion, what is your opinion of the apostle’s language, when he says, “Let no man judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of a holy day, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath, which is a shadow of things to come, but the body is of Christ?”6087 We do not now treat of the law, further than (to remark) that the apostle here teaches clearly how it has been abolished, even by passing from shadow to substance—that is, from figurative types to the reality, which is Christ. The shadow, therefore, is His to whom belongs the body also; in other words, the law is His, and so is Christ. If you separate the law and Christ, assigning one to one god and the other to another, it is the same as if you were to attempt to separate the shadow from the body of which it is the shadow. Manifestly Christ has relation to the law, if the body has to its shadow. But when he blames those who alleged visions of angels as their authority for saying that men must abstain from meats—“you must not touch, you must not taste”—in a voluntary humility, (at the same time) “vainly puffed up in the fleshly mind, and not holding the Head,”6088 (the apostle) does not in these terms attack the law or Moses, as if it was at the suggestion of superstitious angels that he had enacted his prohibition of sundry aliments. For Moses had evidently received the law from God. When, therefore, he speaks of their “following the commandments and doctrines of men,”6089 he refers to the conduct of those persons who “held not the Head,” even Him in whom all things are gathered together;6090 for they are all recalled to Christ, and concentrated in Him as their initiating principle6091—even the meats and drinks which were indifferent in their nature. All the rest of his precepts,6092 as we have shown sufficiently, when treating of them as they occurred in another epistle,6093 emanated from the Creator, who, while predicting that “old things were to pass away,” and that He would “make all things new,”6094 commanded men “to break up fresh ground for themselves,”6095 and thereby taught them even then to put off the old man and put on the new. [Tertullian Against Marcion 5.19]

1 Cor 1.20 - Clement of Alexandria Stromata 1:20 - 1 88 § 1 (p.56, l.19) BP1; 1 89 § 1 (p.57, l.14) BP1;  5 8 § 1 (p.330, l.19) BP1

1 Cor 1.20 - Ignatius Ephesians 18 § 1 (p.87, l.19) BP1

1 Cor 1.20 - But, again, how happens it, that in the system of a Lord 5402 who is so very good, and so profuse in mercy, some carry off salvation, when they believe the cross to be the wisdom and power of God, whilst others incur perdition, to whom the cross of Christ is accounted folly;—(how happens it, I repeat,) unless it is in the Creator’s dispensation to have punished both the people of Israel and the human race, for some great offence committed against Him, with the loss of wisdom and prudence? What follows will confirm this suggestion, when he asks, “Hath not God infatuated the wisdom of this world?” 5403 and when he adds the reason why: “For after that, in the wisdom of God, the world by wisdom knew not God, it pleased God 5404 by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe.” 5405 But first a word about the expression “the world;” because in this passage particularly, 5406 the heretics expend a great deal of their subtlety in showing that by world is meantthe lord of the world. We, however, understand the term to apply to any person that is in the world, by a simple idiom of human language, which often substitutes that which contains for that which is contained. “The circus shouted,” “The forum spoke,” and “The basilica murmured,” are well-known expressions, meaning that the people in these places did so. Since then the man, not the god, of the world 5407 in his wisdom knew not God, whom indeed he ought to have known (both the Jew by his knowledge of the Scriptures, and all the human race by their knowledge of God’s works), therefore that God, who was not acknowledged in His wisdom, resolved to smite men’s knowledge with His foolishness, by saving all those who believe in the folly of the preached cross. [Tertullian Against Marcion 5.5]  5 5 § 7 (p.676, l.1) BP1; 5 5 § 7 (p.677, l.15) BP1; 5 6 § 1 (p.678, l.4) BP1  

1 Cor 1:20 - One may no doubt be wise in the things of God, even from one’s natural powers, but only in witness to the truth, not in maintenance of error; (only) when one acts in accordance with, not in opposition to, the divine dispensation.  For some things are known even by nature: the immortality of the soul, for instance, is held by many; the knowledge of our God is possessed by all. I may use, therefore, the opinion of a Plato, when he declares, “Every soul is immortal.”  I may use also the conscience of a nation, when it attests the God of gods. I may, in like manner, use all the other intelligences of our common nature, when they pronounce God to be a judge. “God sees,” (say they); and, “I commend you to God.” 7308 But when they say, “What has undergone death is dead,” and, “Enjoy life whilst you live,” and, “After death all things come to an end, even death itself;” then I must remember both that “the heart of man is ashes,” 7309 according to the estimate of God, and that the very “Wisdom of the world is foolishness,” (as the inspired word) pronounces it to be. 7310 Then, if even the heretic seek refuge in the depraved thoughts of the vulgar, or the imaginations of the world, I must say to him: Part company with the heathen, O heretic! for although you are all agreed in imagining a God, yet while you do so in the name of Christ, so long as you deem yourself a Christian, you are a different man from a heathen: give him back his own views of things, since he does not himself learn from yours. Why lean upon a blind guide, if you have eyes of your own? Why be clothed by one who is naked, if you have put on Christ? Why use the shield of another, when the apostle gives you armour of your own? It would be better for him to learn from you to acknowledge the resurrection of the flesh, than for you from him to deny it; because if Christians must needs deny it, it would be sufficient if they did so from their own knowledge, without any instruction from the ignorant multitude. He, therefore, will not be a Christian who shall deny this doctrine which is confessed by Christians; denying it, moreover, on grounds which are adopted by a man who is not a Christian. Take away, indeed, from the heretics the wisdom which they share with the heathen, and let them support their inquiries from the Scriptures alone:  they will then be unable to keep their ground. For that which commends men’s common sense is its very simplicity, and its participation in the same feelings, and its community of opinions; and it is deemed to be all the more trustworthy, inasmuch as its definitive statements are naked and open, and known to all. Divine reason, on the contrary, lies in the very pith and marp. 548 row of things, not on the surface, and very often is at variance with appearances. [Tertullian On the Resurrection of the Flesh 3]

1 Cor 1.20 - Epiphanius Panarion 69 20 § 4 (p.170, l.8 - <) BP4; 73 6 § 2 (p.275, l.22 - *<) BP4; 73 6 § 5 (p.276, l.6 - *<) BP4; 73 10 § 1 (p.280, l.21 - *) BP4; 76 20 § 13 (p.367, l.22) BP4

1 Cor  1.21 - Clement of Alexandria, Stromata 1 88 § 3 (p.56, l.24) BP1

1 Cor  1.21 - Tertullian Against Marcion Aduersus Marcionem 2 2 § 5 (p.476, l.11) BP1; 5 5 § 7 (p.676, l.2) BP1; 5 5 § 7 (p.677, l.6 - *) BP1

1 Cor 1.21 - Epiphanius Panarion 69 20 § 4 (p.170, l.6 - <) BP4; 73 6 § 2 (p.275, l.19 - *) BP4

1 Cor 1.22 - Justin Dialogue 38 § 2 (p.170, l.2) BP1

1 Cor 1.22 - Clement of Alexandria Instructor 1 16 § 3 (p.100, l.1) BP1

1 Cor 1.22 - Philosophy came into existence, not on its own account, but for the advantages reaped by us from knowledge, we receiving a firm persuasion of true perception, through the knowledge of things comprehended by the mind. For I do not mention that the Stromata, forming a body of varied erudition, wish artfully to conceal the seeds of knowledge. As, then, he who is fond of hunting captures the game after seeking, tracking, scenting, hunting it down with dogs; so truth, when sought and got with toil, appears a delicious 1838 thing. Why, then, you will ask, did you think it fit that such an arrangement should be adopted in your memoranda? Because there is great danger in divulging the secret of the true philosophy to those, whose delight it is unsparingly to speak against everything, not justly; and who shout forth all kinds of names and words indecorously, deceiving themselves and beguiling those who adhere to them. “For the Hebrews seek signs,” as the apostle says, “and the Greeks seek after wisdom.” [Clement Stromata 1.2] 1 21 § 3 (p.14, l.18) BP1

1 Cor 1.22 - Clement of Alexandria Stromata 1 88 § 4 (p.57, l.1) BP1

1 Cor 1.22 -  “Because the Jews require signs,” who ought to have already made up their minds about God, “and the Greeks seek after wisdom,” who rely upon their own wisdom, and not upon God’s. If, however, it was a new god that was being preached, what sin had the Jews committed, in seeking after signs to believe; or the Greeks, when they hunted after a wisdom which they would prefer to accept? Thus the very retribution which overtook both Jews and Greeks proves that God is both a jealous God and a Judge, inasmuch as He infatuated the world’s wisdom by an angry and a judicial retribution. Since, then, the causes are in the hands of Him who gave us the Scriptures which we use, it follows that the apostle, when treating of the Creator, (as Him whom both Jew and Gentile as yet have) not known, means undoubtedly to teach us, that the God who is to become known (in Christ) is the Creator.  The very “stumbling-block” which he declares Christ to be “to the Jews,” points unmistakeably to the Creator’s prophecy respecting Him, when by Isaiah He says: “Behold I lay in Sion a stone of stumbling and a rock of offence.” This rock or stone is Christ. This stumbling-stone Marcion retains still. [Tertullian Against Marcion 5.5]  5 5 § 7 (p.677, l.15) BP1

1 Cor 1.23 - Epiphanius Panarion 69 34 § 6 (p.183, l.10 - * >) BP4; 76 35 § 12 (p.385, l.25) BP4

I Cor 1.23, 24 - καθάπερ οὖν ἡ μαγνῆτις λίθος τὴν ἄλλην ὕλην παραπεμ πομένη μόνον ἐφέλκεται δι' ἐπιτηδειότητα τὸν σίδηρον, οὕτως καὶ τὰ βιβλία πολλῶν ὄντων τῶν ἐντυγχανόντων τοὺς οἵους τε συνιέναι μόνους ἐπισπᾶται. ὁ γὰρ τῆς ἀληθείας λόγος τοῖς μὲν "μωρία", τοῖς δὲ "σκάνδαλον", ὀλίγοις δὲ "σοφία" οὕτως καὶ "δύναμις" εὑρίσκεται "θεοῦ"· φθόνος δὲ ἀπείη γνωστικοῦ. διὰ τοῦτο γὰρ καὶ ζητεῖ πότε ρον χεῖρον, ἀναξίῳ δοῦναι ἢ ἀξίῳ μὴ παραδοῦναι, καὶ κινδυνεύει ὑπὸ πολλῆς τῆς ἀγάπης οὐ μόνον παντὶ τῷ προσήκοντι, ἀλλ' ἔσθ' ὅτε καὶ ἀναξίῳ λιπαρῶς δεομένῳ κοινωνήσειν, οὐ διὰ τὴν δέησιν (οὐ γὰρ φιλοδοξεῖ), ἀλλὰ διὰ τὴν ἐπιμονὴν τοῦ δεομένου μελετῶντος εἰς πίστιν διὰ πολλῆς τῆς δεήσεω Clement Eclogae ex scripturis propheticis 27 § 6 (p.145, l.8) BP1

1 Cor 1.23 - Stromata 1 88 § 3 (p.56, l.24) BP1; 1 88 § 4 (p.57, l.1) BP1; 5 25 § 4 (p.341, l.22 - P) BP1; 6 127 § 1 (p.496, l.8) BP1

1 Cor 1.24 -  Clement Excerpta e Theodoto (SAGNARD F., SC 23 (1948)) - 4 § 2 (p.60, l.3) BP1; 12 § 3 (p.82, l.24) BP1; 27 § 6 (p.118, l.3) BP1

1 Cor 1.24 - Stromata 1 88 § 8 (p.57, l.12) BP1; 1 89 § 3 (p.57, l.24) BP1; 1 90 § 1 (p.57, l.31) BP1; 1 100 § 1 (p.63, l.30) BP1; 1 169 § 3 (p.105, l.23) BP1; 1 174 § 3 (p.108, l.11) BP1; 2 52 § 7 (p.141, l.21) BP1; 6 47 § 3 (p.455, l.29) BP1; 6 127 § 2 (p.496, l.11) BP1
7 7 § 4 (p.7, l.11) BP1

1 Cor 1.24 - Although at one time philosophy justified the Greeks, 2026 not conducting them to that entire righteousness to which it is ascertained to cooperate, as the first and second flight of steps help you in your ascent to the upper room, and the grammarian helps the philosopher. Not as if by its abstraction, the perfect Word would be rendered incomplete, or truth perish; since also sight, and hearing, and the voice contribute to truth, but it is the mind which is the appropriate faculty for knowing it. But of those things which co-operate, some contribute a greater amount of power; some, a less. Perspicuity accordingly aids in the communication of truth, and logic in preventing us from falling under the heresies by which we are assailed. But the teaching, which is according to the Saviour, is complete in itself and without defect, being “the power and wisdom of God;” 2027 and the Hellenic philosophy does not, by its approach, make the truth more powerful; but rendering powerless the assault of sophistry against it, and frustrating the treacherous plots laid against the truth, is said to be the proper “fence and wall of the vineyard.” [Clement of Alexandria, Stromata 1.20]

1 Cor 1.24 - And if the flock figuratively spoken of as belonging to the Lord is nothing but a flock of men, then He Himself is the good Shepherd and Lawgiver of the one flock, “of the sheep who hear Him,” the one who cares for them, “seeking,” and finding by the law and the word, “that which was lost;” since, in truth, the law is spiritual and leads to felicity. For that which has arisen through the Holy Spirit is spiritual. And he is truly a legislator, who not only announces what is good and noble, but understands it. The law of this man who possesses knowledge is the saving precept; or rather, the law is the precept of knowledge. For the Word is “the power and the wisdom of God.” 2113 Again, the expounder of the laws is the same one by whom the law was given; the first expounder of the divine commands, who unveiled the bosom of the Father, the only-begotten Son.  Then those who obey the law, since they have some knowledge of Him, cannot disbelieve or be ignorant of the truth. But those who disbelieve, and have shown a repugnance to engage in the works of the law, whoever else may, certainly confess their ignorance of the truth. [Clement of Alexandria, Stromata 1.26]

1 Cor 1.24 - One righteous man, then, differs not, as righteous, from another righteous man, whether he be of the Law or a Greek. For God is not only Lord of the Jews, but of all men, and more nearly the Father of those who know Him. For if to live well and according to the law is to live, also to live rationally according to the law is to live; and those who lived rightly before the Law were classed under faith, 3273 and judged to be righteous,—it is evident that those, too, who were outside of the Law, having lived rightly, in consequence of the peculiar nature of the voice, 3274 though they are in Hades and in ward, 3275 on hearing the voice of the Lord, whether that of His own person or that acting through His apostles, with all speed turned and believed. For we remember that the Lord is “the power of God,” 3276 and power can never be weak. So I think it is demonstrated that the God being good, and the Lord powerful, they save with a righteousness and equality which extend to all that turn to Him, whether here or elsewhere. For it is not here alone that the active power of God is beforehand, but it is everywhere and is always at work. [Clement Stromata 6.6]

1 Cor 1.24 - Adamantius Dialogues (p.172, l.17 - <) BP2

1  Cor 1.24 - Acts of Thomas 1  WRIGHT W., Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles, 2, London 1871, 146-298.    (p.154, l.9) BP2   (p.245, l.18) BP2

1 Cor 1.24 - Theognostus Hypotyposeis 4 (p.77, l.1 - < >) BP2; 4 (p.78, l.4 - >) BP2

1 Cor 1.24 - Pseudo Hippolytus Against All Heresies 1 § 5 (p.1402, l.19 - *) BP2

1 Cor 1.24 - If, now, it is in this sense that He stretches out the heavens alone, how is it that these heretics assume their position so perversely, as to render inadmissible the singleness of that Wisdom which says, When He prepared the heaven, I was present with Him? Proverbs 8:27 — even though the apostle asks, Who has knownthe mind of the Lord, or who has been His counsellor? Romans 11:34 meaning, of course, to except that wisdom which was present with Him. Proverbs 8:30 In Him, at any rate, and with Him, did (Wisdom) construct the universe, He not being ignorant of what she was making. Except Wisdom, however, is a phrase of the same sense exactly as except the Son, who is Christ, the Wisdom and Power ofGod, 1 Corinthians 1:24 according to the apostle, who only knows the mind of the Father. For whoknows the things that be in God, except the Spirit which is in Him? 1 Corinthians 2:11 Not, observe,without Him. There was therefore One who caused God to be not alone, except alone from all othergods. But (if we are to follow the heretics), the Gospel itself will have to be rejected, because it tells us that all things were made by God through the Word, without whom nothing was made. John 1:3 And if I am not mistaken, there is also another passage in which it is written: By the Word of the Lordwere the heavens made, and all the hosts of them by His Spirit.  [Tertullian Against Praxeas 19]

1 Cor 1.24 - The wisdom of the Lord-His Son. In the apostle: "Christ the power of God, and the wisdom of God; "114 and in Solomon: "The wisdom of the Lord reacheth from one end to the other mightily." [Melito of Sardis]

1 cor 1.24 - Christ, the power ... Origen

1 Cor 1.25 -  Isaiah even so early, with the clearness of an apostle, foreseeing the thoughts of heretical hearts, asked, Who has known the mind of the Lord? For who has been His counsellor? With whom took He counsel?...or who taught Him knowledge, and showed to Him the way of understanding? With whom the apostle agreeing exclaims, Oh the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are His judgments, and His ways past finding out!Romans 11:33 His judgments unsearchable, as being those of God the Judge; and His ways past finding out, as comprising an understanding and knowledge which no man has ever shown to Him, except it may be those critics of the Divine Being, who say, God ought not to have been this, and He ought rather to have been that; as if any one knew what is in God, except the Spirit of God.1 Corinthians 2:11 Moreover, having the spirit of the world, and in the wisdom of God by wisdomknowing not God, 1 Corinthians 1:21 they seem to themselves to be wiser than God; because, as the wisdom of the world is foolishness with God, so also the wisdom of God is folly in the world's esteem. We, however, know that the foolishness of God is wiser than men, and the weakness of God is stronger than men. 1 Corinthians 1:25 Accordingly, God is then especially great, when He is small to man; then especially good, when not good in man's judgment; then especially unique, when He seems to man to be two or more. Now, if from the very first the natural man, not receiving the things of the Spirit of God, 1 Corinthians 2:14 has deemed God's law to be foolishness, and has therefore neglected to observe it; and as a further consequence, by his not having faith, even that which he seems to have has been taken from him — such as the grace of paradise and the friendship of God, by means of which he might have known all things of God, if he had continued in his obedience— what wonder is it, if he, reduced to his material nature, and banished to the toil of tilling the ground, has in his very labour, downcast and earth-gravitating as it was, handed on that earth-derived spirit of the world to his entire race, wholly natural and heretical as it is, and not receiving the things which belong to God? Or who will hesitate to declare the great sin of Adam to have been heresy, when he committed it by the choice of his own will rather than of God's? Except that Adam never said to his fig-tree, Why have you made me thus? He confessed that he was led astray; and he did not conceal the seducer. He was a very rude heretic. He was disobedient; but yet he did not blaspheme hisCreator, nor blame that Author of his being, Whom from the beginning of his life he had found to be sogood and excellent, and Whom he had perhaps made his own judge from the very first. [Tertullian Against Marcion 2.2] 2 2 § 5 (p.476, l.15) BP1

1 Cor 1.25, etc Now, what is that “foolishness of God which is wiser than men,” but the cross and death of Christ? What is that “weakness of God which is stronger than men,” 5416 but the nativity and incarnation 5417 of God? If, however, Christ was not born of the Virgin, was not constituted of human flesh, and thereby really suffered neither death nor the cross, there was nothing in Him either of foolishness or weakness; nor is it any longer true, that “God hath chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wise;” nor, again, hath “God chosen the weak things of the world to confound the mighty;” nor “the base things” and the least things “in the world, and things which are despised, which are even as nothing” (that is, things which really 5418 are not), “to bring to nothing things which are” (that is, which really are). 5419 For nothing in the dispensation of God is found to be mean, and ignoble, and contemptible. Such only occurs in man’s arrangement. The very Old Testament of the Creator 5420 itself, it is possible, no doubt, to charge with foolishness, and weakness, and dishonour and meanness, and contempt.  What is more foolish and more weak than God’s requirement of bloody sacrifices and of savoury holocausts?  What is weaker than the cleansing of vessels and of beds? 5421 What more dishonourable than the discoloration of the reddening skin? 5422 What so mean as the statute of retaliation? What so contemptible as the exception in meats and drinks? The whole of the Old Testament, the heretic, to the best of my belief, holds in derision. For God has chosen the foolish things of the world to confound its wisdom.  Marcion’s god has no such discipline, because he does not take after 5423 (the Creator) in the process of confusing opposites by their opposites, so that “no flesh shall glory; but, as it is written, He that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord.” 5424 In what Lord?  Surely in Him who gave this precept. 5425 Unless, forsooth, the Creator enjoined us to glory in the god of Marcion. [Tertullian Against Marcion 5.5]5 5 § 9 (p.677, l.3) BP1

1 Cor 1.25 - Epiphanius Panarion 73 6 § 2 (p.275, l.18 - *) BP4; 76 35 § 4 (p.384, l.17 - <) BP4

1 Cor 1.26 - Still more manifestly is that talk of theirs concerning their seed proved to be false, and that in a way which must be evident to every one, by the fact that they declare those souls which have received seed from the Mother to be superior to all others; wherefore also they have been honouredby the Demiurge, and constituted princes, and kings, and priests. For if this were true, the high priestCaiaphas, and Annas, and the rest of the chief priests, and doctors of the law, and rulers of the people, would have been the first to believe in the Lord, agreeing as they did with respect to that relationship; and even before them should have been Herod the king. But since neither he, nor the chief priests, nor the rulers, nor the eminent of the people, turned to Him [in faith], but, on the contrary, those who sat begging by the highway, the deaf, and the blind, while He was rejected and despised by others, according to what Paul declares, For you see your calling, brethren, that there are not many wise men among you, not many noble, not many mighty; but those things of the world which were despised has God chosen. Such souls, therefore, were not superior to others on account of the seed deposited in them, nor on this account were they honoured by the Demiurge. [Irenaeus AH 2.19.7]

1 Cor 1.26, 27 - But it is said we do not all philosophize. Do we not all, then, follow after life? What sayest thou? How hast thou believed? How, pray, dost thou love God and thy neighbour, if thou dost not philosophize? And how dost thou love thyself, if thou dost not love life? It is said, I have not learned letters; but if thou hast not learned to read, thou canst not excuse thyself in the case of hearing, for it is not taught. And faith is the possession not of the wise according to the world, but of those according to God ( Ἀλλ' εἰ μὴ τὸ ἀναγιγνώσκειν ἔμαθες, τὸ ἀκούειν ἀναπολόγητον, ὅτι μὴ διδακτόν· πίστις δὲ οὐ σοφῶν τῶν κατὰ κόσμον,  ἀλλὰ τῶν κατὰ θεόν ἐστιν τὸ κτῆμα); and it is taught without letters; and its handbook, at once rude and divine, is called love--a spiritual book. It is in your power to listen to divine wisdom, ay, and to frame your life in accordance with it. Nay, you are not prohibited from conducting affairs in the world decorously according to God.[Clement Instructor 3 78 § 2 (p.279, l.17) BP1]

1 Cor 1.26 - Acts of Thomas 1 § 28 (p.143, l.18 - )) BP2

1 Cor 1.27 - Gospel of Truth MALININE M., PUECH H.-Ch., QUISPEL G., Evangelium veritatis, Zürich 1956. (p.9, l.24) BP1

1 Cor 1.27 - Tertullian Against Marcion KROYMANN Aem., CCL 1 (1954), 441-726.  5 5 § 9 (p.677, l.8) BP1; 5 5 § 10 (p.678, l.22) BP; 5 6 § 1 (p.678, l.6) BP1; 5 19 § 8 (p.722, l.19) BP1

1 Cor 1.27 - But how remote is our (Catholic) verity from the artifices of this heretic, when it dreads to arouse the anger of God, and firmly believes that He produced all things out of nothing, and promises to us a restoration from the grave of the same flesh (that died) and holds without a blush that Christ was born of the virgin’s womb! At this, philosophers, and heretics, and the very heathen, laugh and jeer. For “God hath chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wise”6084—that God, no doubt, who in reference to this very dispensation of His threatened long before that He would “destroy the wisdom of the wise.”6085Thanks to this simplicity of truth, so opposed to the subtlety and vain deceit of philosophy, we cannot possibly have any relish for such perverse opinions.  [Tertullian Against Marcion 5.19]

1 Cor 1.27 - But, Marcion, consider well this Scripture, if indeed you have not erased it: “God hath chosen the foolish things of the world, to confound the wise.”7000 Now what are those foolish things? Are they the conversion of men to the worship of the true God, the rejection of error, the whole training in righteousness, chastity, mercy, patience, and innocence?  These things certainly are not “foolish.” Inquire again, then, of what things he spoke, and when you imagine that you have discovered what they are will you find anything to be so “foolish” as believing in a God that has been born, and that of a virgin, and of a fleshly nature too, who wallowed in all the before-mentioned humiliations of nature?  But some one may say, “These are not the foolish things; they must be other things which God has chosen to confound the wisdom of the world.” And yet, according to the world’s wisdom, it is more easy to believe that Jupiter became a bull or a swan, if we listen to Marcion, than that Christ really became a man. [Tertullian, On the Flesh of Christ 4]

1 Cor 1.27 - Now, when you contend that the flesh will still have to undergo the same sufferings, if the same flesh be said to have to rise again, you rashly set up nature against her Lord, and impiously contrast her law against His grace; as if it were not permitted the Lord God both to change nature, and to preserve her, without subjection to a law. How is it, then, that we read, "With men these things are impossible, but with God all things are possible;" and again, "God hath chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wise?" Let me ask you, if you were to manumit your slave (seeing that the same flesh and soul will remain to him, which once were exposed to the whip, and the fetter, and the stripes), will it therefore be fit for him to undergo the same old sufferings? I trow not. He is instead thereof honoured with the grace of the white robe, and the favour of the gold ring, and the name and tribe as well as table of his patron. Give, then, the same prerogative to God, by virtue of such a change, of reforming our condition, not our nature, by taking away from it all sufferings, and surrounding it with safeguards of protection. Thus our flesh shall remain even after the resurrection--so far indeed susceptible of suffering, as it is the flesh, and the same flesh too; but at the same time impassible, inasmuch as it has been liberated by the Lord for the very end and purpose of being no longer capable of enduring suffering. [Tertullian Resurrection of the Flesh 57]

1 Cor 1.27 - Well, butwith God nothing is impossible. Matthew 19:26 True enough; who can be ignorant of it? Who also can be unaware that the things which are impossible with men are possible with God? Luke 18:27 The foolish things also of the world has God chosen to confound the things which are wise. We have read it all. Therefore, they argue, it was not difficult for God to make Himself both a Father and a Son, contrary to the condition of things among men.  [Tertullian Against Praxeas 10]

1 Cor 1.27 - For what does it behove divine works to be in their quality, except that they be above all wonder? We also ourselves wonder, but it is because we believe. Incredulity, on the other hand, wonders, but does not believe: for the simple acts it wonders at, as if they were vain; the grand results, as if they were impossible. And grant that it be just as you think? sufficient to meet each point is the divine declaration which has fore-run: "The foolish things of the world hath God elected to confound its wisdom;" and, "The things very difficult with men are easy with God." For if God is wise and powerful (which even they who pass Him by do not deny), it is with good reason that He lays the material causes of His own operation in the 670
contraries of wisdom and of power, that is, in foolishness and impossibility; since every virtue receives its cause from those things by which it is called forth.  Mindful of this declaration as of a conclusive prescript, we nevertheless proceed to treat the question, "How foolish and impossible it is to be formed anew by water. In what respect, pray, has this material substance merited an office of so high dignity?" The authority, I suppose, of the liquid element has to be examined. This however, is found in abundance, and that from the very beginning. For water is one of those things which, before all the furnishing of the world, were quiescent with God in a yet unshapen state. "In the first beginning," saith Scripture, "God made the heaven and the earth. But the earth was invisible, and unorganized, and darkness was over the abyss; and the Spirit of the Lord was hovering over the waters." The first thing, O man, which you have to venerate, is the age of the, waters in that their substance is ancient; the second, their dignity, in that they were the seat of the Divine Spirit, more pleasing to Him, no doubt, than all the other then existing elements. For the darkness was total thus far, shapeless, without the ornament of stars; and the abyss gloomy; and the earth unfurnished; and the heaven unwrought: water alone--always a perfect, gladsome, simple material substance, pure in itself--supplied a worthy vehicle to God. What of the fact that waters were in some way the regulating powers by which the disposition of the world thenceforward was constituted by God? For the suspension of the celestial firmament in the midst He caused by "dividing the waters;" the suspension of "the dry land" He accomplished by "separating the waters." After the world had been hereupon set in order through its elements, when inhabitants were given it, "the waters" were the first to receive the precept "to bring forth living creatures." Water was the first to produce that which had life, that it might be no wonder in baptism if waters know how to give life. For was not the work of fashioning man himself also achieved with the aid of waters? Suitable material is found in the earth, yet not apt for the purpose unless it be moist and juicy; which (earth) "the waters," separated the fourth day before into their own place, temper with their remaining moisture to a clayey consistency. If, from that time onward, I go forward in recounting universally, or at more length, the evidences of the "authority" of this element which I can adduce to show how great is its power or its grace; how many ingenious devices, how many functions, how useful an instrumentality, it affords the world, I fear I may seem to have collected rather the praises of water than the reasons of baptism; although I should thereby teach all the more fully, that it is not to be doubted that God has made the material substance which He has disposed throughout all His products and works, obey Him also in His own peculiar sacraments; that the material substance which governs terrestrial life acts as agent likewise in the celestial.  But it will suffice to have this called at the outset those points in which withal is recognised that primary principle of baptism,--which was even then fore-noted by the very attitude assumed for a type of baptism,--that the Spirit of God, who hovered over (the waters) from the beginning, would continue to linger over the waters of the baptized. But a holy thing, of course, hovered over a holy; or else, from that which hovered over that which was hovered over borrowed a holiness, since it is necessary that in every case an underlying material substance should catch the quality of that which overhangs it, most of all a corporeal of a spiritual, adapted (as the spiritual is) through the subtleness of its substance, both for penetrating and insinuating. Thus the nature of the waters, sanctified by the Holy One, itself conceived withal the power of sanctifying. Let no one say, "Why then, are we, pray, baptized with the very waters which then existed in the first beginning?" Not with those waters, of course, except in so far as the genus indeed is one, but the species very many. But what is an attribute to the genus reappears likewise in the species. And accordingly it makes no difference whether a man be washed in a sea or a pool, a stream or a fount, a lake or a trough; nor is there any distinction between those whom John baptized in the Jordan and those whom Peter baptized in the Tiber, unless withal the eunuch whom Philip baptized in the midst of his journeys with chance water, derived (therefrom) more or less of salvation than others. All waters, therefore, in virtue of the pristine privilege of their origin, do, after invocation of God, attain the sacramental power of sanctification; for the Spirit immediately supervenes from the heavens, and rests over the waters, sanctifying them from Himself; and being thus sanctified, they imbibe at the same time the power of sanctifying. Albeit the similitude may be admitted to be suitable to the simple act; that, since we are defiled by sins, as it were by dirt, we should be washed from those stains in waters. But as sins do not 'show themselves in our flesh (inasmuch as no one carries on his skin the spot of idolatry, or fornication, or fraud), so persons of that kind are foul in the spirit, which is the author of the sin; for the spirit is lord, the flesh servant. Yet they each mutually share the guilt: the spirit, on the ground of command; the flesh, of subservience. Therefore, after the waters have been in a manner endued with medicinal virtue through the intervention of the angel, the spirit is corporeally washed in the waters, and the flesh is in the same spiritually cleansed.  "Well, but the nations, who are strangers to all understanding of spiritual powers, ascribe to their idols the imbuing of waters with the self-same efficacy." (So they do) but they cheat themselves with waters which are widowed. For washing is the channel through which they are initiated into some sacred rites--of some notorious Isis or Mithras. The gods themselves likewise they honour by washings. [Tertullian On Baptism 2 - 5] BORLEFFS J.G.Ph., CCL 1 (1954), 277-295.   2 § 3 (p.278, l.21) BP1

1 Cor 1.27 - Tertullian Prescription REFOULE R.F., CCL 1 (1954), 187-224.

1 Cor 1.27 - and although they had no mean glimpses of His "eternal power and Godhead," they nevertheless became "foolish in their imaginations," and their "foolish heart" was involved in darkness and ignorance as to the (true) worship of God. Moreover, we may see those who greatly pride themselves upon their wisdom and theology worshipping the image of a corruptible man, in honour, they say, of Him, and sometimes even descending, with the Egyptians, to the worship of birds, and four-footed beasts, and creeping things! And although some may appear to have risen above such practices, nevertheless they will be found to have changed the truth of God into a lie, and to worship and serve the "creature more than the Creator." As the wise and learned among the Greeks, then, commit errors in the service which they render to God, God "chose the foolish things of the world to confound the wise; and base things of the world, and things that are weak, and things which are despised, and things which are nought, to bring to nought things that are;" and this, truly, "that no flesh should glory in the presence of God." [Origen Contra Celsus 6.4]

1 Cor 1.28 - Tertullian Against Marcion 5 5 § 9 (p.677, l.8) BP1; 5 6 § 1 (p.678, l.6) BP1

1 Cor 1.29 - [This was done] that man, receiving an unhoped-forsalvation from God, might rise from the dead, and glorify God, and repeat that word which was uttered in prophecy by Jonah: I cried by reason of my affliction to the Lord my God, and He heard me out of the belly of hell; Jonah 2:2 and that he might always continue glorifying God, and giving thanks without ceasing, for that salvation which he has derived from Him, that no flesh should glory in theLord's presence; 1 Corinthians 1:29 and that man should never adopt an opposite opinion with regard to God, supposing that the incorruptibility which belongs to him is his own naturally, and by thus not holding the truth, should boast with empty superciliousness, as if he were naturally like to God. For he (Satan) thus rendered him (man) more ungrateful towards his Creator, obscured the love which Godhad towards man, and blinded his mind not to perceive what is worthy of God, comparing himself with, and judging himself equal to, God. [Irenaeus Against Heresies 3.20.1]

1 Cor 1.29 - (the Creator) in the process of confusing opposites by their opposites, so that "no flesh shall glory; but, as it is written, He that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord." [Tertullian Against Marcion 5.5] 5 5 § 10 (p.678, l.24) BP1

1 Cor 1.29 - Adamantius, Dialogues (p.42, l.9 - <) BP2

1 Cor 1.29 - From which it appears to me that the divine mysteries were concealed from the wise and prudent, according to the statement of Scripture, that "no flesh should glory before God," [Origen De Principiis 3]

1 Cor 1.30 - Let us therefore, brethren, be of humble mind, laying aside all haughtiness, and pride, and foolishness, and angry feelings; and let us act according to that which is written (for the Holy Spirit saith, “Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, neither let the mighty man glory in his might, neither let the rich man glory in his riches; but let him that glorieth glory in the Lord, in diligently seeking Him, and doing judgment and righteousness”55), being especially mindful of the words of the Lord Jesus which He spake, teaching us meekness and long-suffering. For thus He spoke: “Be ye merciful, that ye may obtain mercy; forgive, that it may be forgiven to you; as ye do, so shall it be done unto you; as ye judge, so shall ye be judged; as ye are kind, so shall kindness be shown to you; with what measure ye mete, with the same it shall be measured to you.” [1 Clement 13.]

1 Cor 1.30 - Εἰ τοίνυν αὐτόν τε τὸν Χριστὸν σοφίαν φαμὲν καὶ τὴν ἐνέργειαν αὐτοῦ τὴν διὰ τῶν προφητῶν, δι' ἧς ἔστι τὴν γνωστικὴν παράδοσιν ἐκμανθάνειν, ὡς αὐτὸς κατὰ τὴν παρουσίαν τοὺς ἁγίους ἐδίδαξεν ἀποστόλους, σοφία εἴη ἂν ἡ γνῶσις, ἐπιστήμη οὖσα καὶ κατάληψις τῶν ὄντων τε καὶ ἐσομένων καὶ παρῳχηκότων βεβαία καὶ ἀσφαλής,  ὡς ἂν παρὰ τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ παραδοθεῖσα καὶ ἀποκα λυφθεῖσ Clement Stromata 6 61 § 1 (p.462, l.18) BP1

1 Cor 1.30 Theognostus Hypotyposeis HARNACK A., TU 24,3 (1903), 75-78. 4 (p.77, l.1 - < /) BP2; 4 (p.78, l.4 - /) BP2  

1 Cor 1.30 - Acts of Thomas (p.190, l.2) BP2

1 Cor 1.30 - But I measure myself, that I may not perish through boasting: but it is good to glory in the Lord.[Ignatius to the Tarsians]

1 Cor 1.30 - I do not glory in the world, but in the Lord. I exhort Hero, my son; "but let him that glorieth, glory in the Lord." [Ignatius to Hero]

1 Cor 1.30, 31 - So also may we take the Scripture: And I, brethren, could not speak unto you as unto spiritual, but as unto carnal, even as unto babes in Christ; 1 Corinthians 3:1 so that the carnal may be understood as those recently instructed, and still babes in Christ. For he called those who had already believed on the Holy Spirit spiritual, and those newly instructed and not yet purified carnal; whom with justice he calls still carnal, as minding equally with the heathen the things of the flesh:For whereas there is among you envy and strife, are you not carnal, and walk as men?1 Corinthians 3:3 Wherefore also I have given you milk to drink, he says; meaning, I have instilled into you the knowledge which, from instruction, nourishes up to life eternal. But the expression, I have given you to drink (ἐπότισα), is the symbol of perfect appropriation. For those who are full-grown are said to drink, babes to suck. For my blood, says the Lord, is true drink. John 6:55 In saying, therefore, I have given you milk to drink, has he not indicated the knowledge of the truth, theperfect gladness in the Word, who is the milk? And what follows next, not meat, for you were not able, may indicate the clear revelation in the future world, like food, face to face. For now we see as through a glass, the same apostle says, but then face to face. 1 Corinthians 13:12 Wherefore also he has added, neither yet are you now able, for you are still carnal, minding the things of the flesh—desiring, loving, feeling jealousy, wrath, envy. For we are no more in the flesh, Romans 8:9 as some suppose. For with it [they say], having the face which is like an angel's, we shall see the promise face to face. How then, if that is truly the promise after our departure hence, say they that they know what eye has not known, nor has entered into the mind of man, who have not perceived by the Spirit, but received from instruction what ear has not heard, or that ear alone which was rapt up into the third heaven? But it even then was commanded to preserve it unspoken But if human wisdom, as it remains to understand, is the glorying in knowledge, hear the law ofScripture: Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, and let not the mighty man glory in his might; but let him that glories glory in the Lord. But we are God-taught, and glory in the name of Christ. How then are we not to regard the apostle as attaching this sense to the milk of the babes? And if we who preside over the Churches are shepherds after the image of the good Shepherd, and you the sheep, are we not to regard the Lord as preserving consistency in the use of figurative speech, when He speaks also of the milk of the flock? And to this meaning we may secondly accommodate the expression, I have given you milk to drink, and not given you food, for you are not yet able,regarding the meat not as something different from the milk, but the same in substance. For the very same Word is fluid and mild as milk, or solid and compact as meat. And entertaining this view, we may regard the proclamation of the Gospel, which is universally diffused, as milk; and as meat, faith, which from instruction is compacted into a foundation, which, being more substantial than hearing, is likened to meat, and assimilates to the soul itself nourishment of this kind.  [Clement Instructor 1.6] 1 37 § 2 (p.112, l.13) BP1

1.30 - Tertullian Against Marcion 4 15 § 10 (p.579, l.8) BP1; 5 5 § 10 (p.678, l.25) BP1

1:30 - Adamantius Dialogues (p.42, l.9 - <) BP2

1.30 - Epiphanius Panarion 42 11 § 8 (p.121, l.7 - *<) BP4; 42 12 § 3 (p.159, l.26 - *<) BP4; 42 12 § 3 (p.159, l.28) BP4

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