Friday, October 21, 2011

Towards the Original Fourth Chapter of Clement of Alexandria's First Letter to the Corinthians (= the Letter to the Alexandrians)

1 Corinthians Chapter 4

1 This, then, is how you ought to regard us: as servants of Christ and as those entrusted with the mysteries God has revealed.

2 Now it is required that those who have been given a trust must prove faithful.

3 I care very little if I am judged by you or by any human court; indeed, I do not even judge myself.

4 My conscience is clear, but that does not make me innocent. It is the Lord who judges me.

5 Therefore judge nothing before the appointed time; wait until the Lord comes. He will bring to light what is hidden in darkness and will expose the motives of the heart. At that time each will receive their praise from God.

6 Now, brothers and sisters, I have applied these things to myself and Apollos for your benefit, so that you may learn from us the meaning of the saying, “Do not go beyond what is written.” Then you will not be puffed up in being a follower of one of us over against the other.

7 For who makes you different from anyone else? What do you have that you did not receive? And if you did receive it, why do you boast as though you did not?

8 Already you have all you want! Already you have become rich! You have begun to reign—and that without us! How I wish that you really had begun to reign so that we also might reign with you!

For I think that God hath set forth us the apostles last, as appointed to death: we are made a spectacle to the world, and to angels, and to men. 

10 We are fools for Christ, but you are so wise in Christ! We are weak, but you are strong! You are honored, we are dishonored!

11 Up to this present hour we both hunger, and thirst, and are naked, and are beaten, and are feeble

12 and labour, working with our hands. Being reviled, we bless; being persecuted, we endure; 

13 being defamed, we entreat; we are become as it were the offscourings of the world. the garbage of the world—right up to this moment.

14 I am writing this not to shame you but to warn you as my dear children.

15 You may have thousands of tutors in Christ but only one father. I am your father in Christ through the gospel.

16 I exhort you - Be followers of me.

17 For this reason I have sent to you Timothy, my son whom I love, who is faithful in the Lord. He will remind you of my way of life in Christ Jesus, which agrees with what I teach everywhere in every church.

18 Some of you have become arrogant, as if I were not coming to you.

19 But I will come to you very soon, if the Lord is willing, and then I will find out not only how these arrogant people are talking, but what power they have.

20 For the kingdom of God is not in word, but in power.

21 What do you prefer? Shall I come unto you with a rod, or in love, in the spirit of meekness?

Relevant Patristic References

1 Cor 4.1 - Epistle ad Diognetum 7 § 1 (p.145, l.11) BP1 Origen is the only other witness

1 Cor 4.2 - Hippolytus and Origen

1 Cor 4.3 - mostly Origen

1 cor 4.4 - But I am the more instructed by their injuries [to act as a disciple of Christ]; "yet am I not thereby justified."

1 cor 4.5, 9 - "And the hidden things of darkness He will Himself bring to light,"281 even by Christ; for He has promised Christ to be a Light,282 and Himself He has declared to be a lamp, "searching the hearts and reins."283 From Him also shall "praise be had by every man,"284 from whom proceeds, as from a judge, the opposite also of praise. But here, at least, you say he interprets the world to be the God thereof, when he says: "We are made a spectacle unto the world, and to angels, and to men."285 For if by world he had meant the people thereof, he would not have afterwards specially mentioned "men." To prevent, however, your using such an argument as this, the Holy Ghost has providentially explained the meaning of the passage thus: "We are made a spectacle to the world," i.e. "both to angels," who minister therein, "and to men," who are the objects of their ministration.286 [Tertullian Against Marcion 5.7] 5 7 § 1 (p.681, l.11) BP1

1 Cor 4.5 - Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 2074 HUNT A.S., The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Part XVII, London 1927, 18-21. (p.19, l.18) BP2

1 Cor 4.5 Epiphanius Panarion 59 5 § 7 (p.370, l.6 - < >) BP4

1.Cor 4.6 - Only found in Origen

1 Cor 4.7 - Only found in Origen and Tertullian

1 Cor 4.8 - Euangelium Thomae copticum GUILLAUMONT A. et alii, L'Evangile selon Thomas, Paris 1959 § 81 (p.45, l.16) BP1

1 Cor 4.9 - For He who prescribes the contest is the Almighty God, and He who awards the prize is the only-begotten: Son of God. Angels and gods are spectators; and the contest, embracing all the varied exercises, is "not against flesh and blood," but against the spiritual powers of inordinate passions that work through the flesh. He who obtains the mastery in these struggles, and overthrows the tempter, menacing, as it were, with certain contests, wins immortality. For the sentence of God in most righteous judgment is infallible. The spectators are summoned to the contest, and the athletes contend in the stadium; the one, who has obeyed the directions of the trainer, wins the day. For to all, all rewards proposed by God are equal; and He Himself is unimpeachable. And he who has power receives mercy, and he that has exercised will is mighty. Clement Stromata 7 20 § 4 (p.14, l.26) BP1

1 Cor 4.9 - Tertullian Against Marcion 5 7 § 1 (p.682, l.16 - *) BP1; 5 7 § 1 (p.682, l.20) BP1

1 cor 4.9, 11,12, 13 “For I think that God hath set forth us the apostles last, as appointed to death: we are made a spectacle to the world, and to angels, and to men. Up to this present hour we both hunger, and thirst, and are naked, and are beaten, and are feeble, and labour, working with our hands. Being reviled, we bless; being persecuted, we endure; being defamed, we entreat; we are become as it were the offscourings of the world.”2758 Such also are the words of Plato in theRepublic:2759 “The just man, though stretched on the rack, though his eyes are dug out, will be happy.” The Gnostic will never then have the chief end placed in life, but in being always happy and blessed, and a kingly friend of God. Although visited with ignominy and exile, and confiscation, and above all, death, he will never be wrenched from his freedom, and signal love to God. “The charity which bears all things, endures all things,”2760 is assured that Divine Providence orders all things well. “I exhort you,” therefore it is said, “Be followers of me.” The first step to salvation2761 is the instruction accompanied with fear, in consequence of which we abstain from what is wrong; and the second is hope, by reason of which we desire the best things; but love, as is fitting, perfects, by training now according to knowledge. Let not then any one deceive you, as indeed ye are not deceived; for ye are wholly devoted to God. For when there is no evil desire within you, which might defile and torment you, then do ye live in accordance with the will of God, and are [the servants] of Christ. Cast ye out that which defiles (offscouring) you, who are of the540 most holy Church of the Ephesians, which is so famous and celebrated throughout the world. They that are carnal cannot do those things which are spiritual, nor they that are spiritual the things which are carnal; even as faith cannot do the works of unbelief, nor unbelief the works of faith. But ye, being full of the Holy Spirit, do nothing according to the flesh, but all things according to the Spirit. Ye are complete in Christ Jesus, “who is the Saviour of all men, specially of them that believe.” [Ignatius Ephesians longer 7]

1 Cor 4.10 - Found only in Origen

1 Cor 4.9 - 11, 13  "For I think that God hath set forth us the apostles last, as appointed to death: we are made a spectacle to the world, and to angels, and to men. Up to this present hour we both hunger, and thirst, and are naked, and are beaten, and are feeble, and labour, working with our hands. Being reviled, we bless; being persecuted, we endure; being defamed, we entreat; we are become as it were the offscourings of the world." Clement Stromata 4 51 § 2 (p.272, l.5) BP1

1 Cor 4.12 Epistula ad Diognetum 5 § 15 (p.144, l.18) BP1

1 Cor 4.12 Ignatius to the Antiochenes

1 Cor 4.13 Clement Stromata 4 51 § 2 (p.272, l.5) BP1

1 cor 4.13 - Let my spirit be counted as nothing122 for the sake of the cross, which is a stumbling-block123 to those that do not believe, but to us salvation and life eternal. "Where is the wise man? where the disputer? "124 Where is the boasting of those who are styled prudent? For our God, Jesus Christ, was, according to the appointment125of God, conceived in the womb by Mary, of the seed of David, but by the Holy Ghost. He was born and baptized, that by His passion He might purify the water. [Ignatius Ephesians 18]

1 cor 4:13 - And again he says, "This is the great and wonderful day which the Lord hath made. I write the more simply unto you, that ye may understand. I am the off-scouring of your love. What, then, again says the prophet? "The assembly of the wicked surrounded me; they encompassed me as bees do a honeycomb," and "upon my garment they cast lots." Since, therefore, He was about to be manifested and to suffer in the flesh, His suffering was foreshown. [Epistle of Barnbas 6]

1 cor 4.13 - And many who had thus cured others of their sicknesses, and restored them to strength, died themselves, having transferred to their own bodies the death that lay upon these. And that common saying, which else seemed always to be only a polite form of address, they expressed in actual fact then, as they departed this life, like the “off-scourings of all.” Yea, the very best of our brethren have departed this life in this manner, including some presbyters and some deacons, and among the people those who were in highest reputation: so that this very form of death, in virtue of the distinguished piety and the steadfast faith which were exhibited in it, appeared to come in nothing beneath martyrdom itself [Dionysus Epistle to the Alexandrians 4] The phrase περίψημα πάντων refers to 1 Cor. iv. 13. Valesius supposes that among the Alexandrians it may have been a humble and complimentary form of salutation, ἐγώ ειμι περίψημά σου; or that the expression περίψημα πάντων had come to be habitually applied to the Christians by the heathen.

1 Cor 4.14 - Tertullian Against Marcion 5 7 § 2 (p.682, l.23) BP1

1 Cor 4.15 - Clement Stromata - 3 99 § 3 (p.241, l.27) BP1; 5 15 § 3 (p.335, l.19) BP1; 7 53 § 5 (p.40, l.1) BP1

1 cor 4.15 - "Little children," says the Teacher, "I am with you only a little longer." 404 That is why Paul says in his letter to Galatians, "My little children, I am going through the pains of childbirth with you a second time until Christ is formed in you" 405 (3)Yet again in writing to the Corinthians he says, "You may have thousands of tutors in Christ but only one father. I am your father in Christ through the gospel." 406 (4) This is why "no eunuch shall enter God’s assembly," 407 being unproductive and unfruitful in behavior and speech. But "those who have made themselves eunuchs" – free from every sin – "for the kingdom of heaven’s sake," 408 in fasting from worldliness, 409 find blessing. [Clement Stromata 3.15]

1 cor 4.15 - Respecting faith we have adduced sufficient testimonies of writings among the Greeks. But in order not to exceed bounds, through eagerness to collect a very great many also respecting hope and love, suffice it merely to say that in the Crito Socrates, who prefers a good life and death to life itself, thinks that we have hope of another life after death. Also in the Phœdrus he says, That only when in a separate state can the soul become partaker of the wisdom which is true, and surpasses human power; and when, having reached the end of hopeby philosophic love, desire shall waft it to heaven, then, says he, does it receive the commencement of another, an immortal life. And in the Symposium he says, That there is instilled into all the natural love of generating what is like, and in men of generating men alone, and in thegood man of the generation of the counterpart of himself. But it is impossible for the good man to do this without possessing the perfect virtues, in which he will train the youth who have recourse to him. And as he says in the Theœtetus,He will beget and finish men. For some procreate by the body, others by the soul; since also with the barbarian philosophers to teach and enlighten is called to regenerate; and I have begotten you in Jesus Christ, 1 Corinthians 4:15 says the good apostlesomewhere. Empedocles, too, enumerates friendship among the elements, conceiving it as a combining love:— Which do you look at with your mind; and don't sit gaping with your eyes. Parmenides, too, in his poem, alluding to hope, speaks thus:— Yet look with the mind certainly on what is absent as present, For it will not sever that which is from the grasp it has of that which is Not, even if scattered in every direction over the world or combined. [Stromata 5.2]

1 Cor 4.15 - Tertullian Against Marcion 5 7 § 2 (p.682, l.23) BP1

1 cor 4.15 - Now hear how he declared that by Christ Himself, when returned to heaven, these spiritual gifts were to be sent: "He ascended up. on high," that is, into heaven; "He led captivity captive," meaning death or slavery of man; "He gave gifts to the sons of men," that is, the gratuities, which we call charismata. He says specifically "sons of men," and not men promiscuously; thus exhibiting to us those who were the children of men truly so called, choice men, apostles. "For," says he, "I have begotten you through the gospel;" and "Ye are my children, of whom I travail again in birth." Now was absolutely fulfilled that promise of the Spirit which was given by the word of Joel: "In the last days will I pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh, and their sons and their daughters shall prophesy; and upon my servants and upon my handmaids will I pour out of my Spirit." Since, then, the Creator promised the gift of His Spirit in the latter days; and since Christ has in these last days appeared as the dispenser of spiritual gifts (as the apostle says, "When the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth His Son;" and again, "This I say, brethren, that the time is short"), it evidently follows in connection with this prediction of the last days, that this gift of the Spirit belongs to Him who is the Christ of the predicters. [Tertullian Against Marcion 5.8] 5 8 § 6 (p.687, l.26) BP1

1 Cor 4.15 - Tertullian Monogamy6 § 1 (p.1235, l.5) BP1

1 Cor 4.15 Epiphanius Panarion 66 63 § 7 (p.102, l.18 - <) BP4; 74 9 § 8 (p.326, l.24 - <) BP4

1 Cor 4.16 - "I exhort you," therefore it is said, "Be followers of meClement Stromata 4 53 § 1 (p.272, l.19) BP1

1 Cor 4.17 - Prologi epistularum Pauli DE BRUYNE D., Prologues bibliques d'origine marcionite, Revue Bénédictine 24 (1907), 13-16. (p.14, l.3 - >) BP2

1 Cor 4.18 - Tertullian De pudicitia 14 § 14 (p.1308, l.52) BP1; 14 § 18 (p.1308, l.73) BP1; 14 § 21 (p.1309, l.82) BP1; 14 § 26 (p.1309, l.103) BP1

1 cor 4.19 - For he that seeketh the Lord shall find knowledge with righteousness; and they who have sought it rightly have found peace.”19371937 The substance of these remarks is found in Prov. ii. “And I will know,” it is said, “not the speech of those which are puffed up, but the power.” In rebuke of those who are wise in appearance, and think themselves wise, but are not in reality wise, he writes: “For the kingdom of God is not in word.” It is not in that which is not true, but which is only probable according to opinion; but he said “in power,” for the truth alone is powerful. And again: “If any man thinketh that he knoweth anything, he knoweth nothing yet as he ought to know.” For truth is never mere opinion. But the “supposition of knowledge inflates,” and fills with pride; “but charity edifieth,” which deals not in supposition, but in truth. Whence it is said, “If any man loves, he is known.” [Clement Stromata 1.11] 1 54 § 2 (p.35, l.5) BP1

1 cor 4.19 - For the Lord did not work conceit by the particulars of His teaching; but He produces trust in the truth and expansion of mind, in the knowledge that is communicated by the Scriptures, and contempt for the things which drag into sin, which is the meaning of the expression “inflated.” It teaches the magnificence of the wisdom implanted in her children by instruction. Now the apostle says, “I will know not the speech of those that are puffed up, but the power;” 3684 if ye understand the Scriptures magnanimously (which means truly; for nothing is greater than truth). For in that lies the power of the children of wisdom who are puffed up. He says, as it were, I shall know if ye rightly entertain great thoughts respecting knowledge. “For God,” according to David, “is known in Judea,” that is, those that are Israelites according to knowledge. For Judea is interpreted “Confession.” It is, then, rightly said by the apostle, “This Thou, shall not commit adultery, Thou shall not steal, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is comprehended in this word, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.” [Clement stromata 7.16] 7 105 § 2 (p.74, l.11) BP1

1 cor 4.20 - It is better for a man to be silent and be [a Christian], than to talk and not to be one. “The kingdom of God is not in word, but in power.”591 Men “believe with the heart, and confess with the mouth,” the one “unto righteousness,” the other “unto salvation.”592 It is good to teach, if he who speaks also acts. [Ignatius Ephesians 15 long version]

1 Cor 4.20 Epiphanius Panarion 76 37 § 16 (p.389, l.25) BP4

1 cor 4.21 - And by the same prophet He says: “Thou shalt rule them with a rod of iron.”1168 Thus also the apostle, in the Epistle to the Corinthians, being moved, says, “What will ye? Shall I come unto you with a rod, or in love, in the spirit of meekness?”1169 Also, “The Lord shall send the rod of strength out of Sion,”1170 He says by another prophet. And this same rod of instruction, “Thy rod and staff have comforted me,”1171 said some one else. Such is the power of the Instructor—sacred, soothing, saving. [Clement instructory 1.6] 1 61 § 3 (p.126, l.16) BP1

1 Cor 4.21 - Tertullian De pudicitia 14 § 14 (p.1308, l.52) BP1, 14 § 18 (p.1308, l.73) BP1, 14 § 21 (p.1309, l.82) BP1, 14 § 26 (p.1309, l.103) BP1

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