Friday, October 28, 2011

Towards the Original Twelfth Chapter of Clement of Alexandria's First Letter to the Corinthians (= the Letter to the Alexandrians)

1 Corinthians Chapter 12

1 Now about the gifts of the Spirit, brothers and sisters, I do not want you to be uninformed. 

2 You know that when you were pagans, somehow or other you were influenced and led astray to mute idols. 

3 Therefore I want you to know that no one who is speaking by the Spirit of God says, “Jesus be cursed,” and no one can say, “Jesus is Lord,” except by the Holy Spirit. 

 4 There are different kinds of gifts, but the same Spirit distributes them. 

5 There are different kinds of service, but the same Lord. 

6 There are different kinds of working, but in all of them and in everyone it is the same God at work. 

But each has his own proper gift of God.  The manifestation of the Spirit is given for our profit.

8 To one there is given through the Spirit a message of wisdom, to another a message of knowledge by means of the same Spirit, For to one is given the word of wisdom by the Spirit; to another the word of knowledge according to the same Spirit

9 to another faith through the same Spirit; to another the gifts of healing through the same Spirit;

10  to another the working of miracles; to another prophecy; to another discernment of spirits; to another diversities of tongues; to another the interpretation of tongues:

11 and all these worketh the one and the same Spirit, distributing to each one according as He wills

12 Just as a body, though one, has many parts, but all its many parts form one body, so it is with Christ.

13 For by one spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Greeks, whether bond or free, and we have all drunk of one cup.

14 Even so the body is not made up of one part but of many.

15 Now if the foot should say, “Because I am not a hand, I do not belong to the body,” it would not for that reason stop being part of the body.

16 And if the ear should say, “Because I am not an eye, I do not belong to the body,” it would not for that reason stop being part of the body.

17 If the whole body were an eye, where would the sense of hearing be? If the whole body were an ear, where would the sense of smell be?

18 But in fact God has placed the parts in the body, every one of them, just as he wanted them to be.

19 If they were all one part, where would the body be?

20 As it is, there are many parts, but one body.

21 The eye cannot say to the hand, “I don’t need you!” And the head cannot say to the feet, “I don’t need you!”

22 On the contrary, those parts of the body that seem to be weaker are indispensable, 

23 and the parts that we think are less honorable we treat with special honor. And the parts that are unpresentable are treated with special modesty, 

24 while our presentable parts need no special treatment. But God has put the body together, giving greater honor to the parts that lacked it, 

25 so that there should be no division in the body, but that its parts should have equal concern for each other. 

26 If one part suffers, every part suffers with it; if one part is honored, every part rejoices with it. 

27 Now you are the body of Christ, and each one of you is a part of it.

28 And God has placed in the church first of all apostles, second prophets, third teachers, then miracles, then gifts of healing, of helping, of guidance, and of different kinds of tongues.

29 Are all apostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers? Do all work miracles?

30 Do all have gifts of healing? Do all speak in tongues? Do all interpret? 

31 Now eagerly desire the greater gifts.  learn the more excellent way.

Relevant Patristic References

1 Cor 12.1 Tertullian Against Marcion 5 8 § 3 (p.686, l.25) BP1 only witnessed by Tertullian

1 cor 12 the verity of the Lord's body and blood in opposition to Marcion's phantom; whilst throughout almost the whole of my work it has been contended that all mention of judicial attributes points conclusively to the Creator as to a God who judges. Now, on the subject of "spiritual gifts," [Tertullian Against Marcion 5.9]

1 cor 12 “Amongst other things,” says she, “there has been shown to me a soul in bodily shape, and a spirit has been in the habit of appearing to me; not, however, a void and empty illusion, but such as would offer itself to be even grasped by the hand, soft and transparent and of an etherial colour, and in form resembling that of a human being in every respect.” This was her vision, and for her witness there was God; and the apostle most assuredly foretold that there were to be “spiritual gifts” in the church.1546 Now, can you refuse to believe this, even if indubitable evidence on every point is forthcoming for your conviction?  [Tertullian Treatise on Soul 9]

1 Cor 12.2 Acts of Paul A (p.22, l.10) BP1 only witnessed by the Acts of Paul

1 Cor 12.3 only witnessed by Origen and Pamphilius

1 cor 12.4 - But we shall not be wrong if we affirm the same thing also concerning the substance of matter, that God produced it. For we have learned from the Scriptures that God holds the supremacy over all things. But whence or in what way He produced it, neither has Scripture anywhere declared; nor does it become us to conjecture, so as, in accordance with our own opinions, to form endless conjectures concerning God, but we should leave such knowledge in the hands of God Himself. In like manner, also, we must leave the cause why, while all things were made by God, certain of His creatures sinned and revolted from a state of submission to God, and others, indeed the great majority, persevered, and do still persevere, in [willing] subjection to Him who formed them, and also of what nature those are who sinned, and of what nature those who persevere—[we must, I say, leave the cause of these things] to God and His Word, to whom alone He said, Sit at my right hand, until I make Your enemies Your footstool. But as for us, we still dwell upon the earth, and have not yet sat down upon His throne. For although the Spirit of the Saviour that is in Him searches all things, even the deep things of God, 1 Corinthians 2:10 yet as to us there are diversities of gifts, differences of administrations, and diversities of operations; and we, while upon the earth, as Paul also declares, know in part, and prophesy in part. 1 Corinthians 13:9 Since, therefore, we know but in part, we ought to leave all sorts of [difficult] questions in the hands of Him who in some measure, [and that only,] bestows grace on us. That eternal fire, [for instance,] is prepared for sinners, both the Lord has plainly declared, and the rest of the Scriptures demonstrate. And that God foreknew that this would happen, the Scriptures do in like manner demonstrate, since He prepared eternal fire from the beginning for those who were [afterwards] to transgress [His commandments]; but the cause itself of the nature of such transgressors neither has anyScripture informed us, nor has an apostle told us, nor has the Lord taught us. It becomes us, therefore, to leave the knowledge of this matter to God, even as the Lord does of the day and hour [of judgment], and not to rush to such an extreme of danger, that we will leave nothing in the hands of God, even though we have received only a measure of grace [from Him in this world]. But when we investigate points which are above us, and with respect to which we cannot reach satisfaction, [it is absurd ] that we should display such an extreme of presumptionas to lay open God, and things which are not yet discovered, as if already we had found out, by the vain talk about emissions, God Himself, the Creator of all things, and to assert that He derived His substance from apostasy and ignorance, so as to frame an impious hypothesis in opposition to God.
8. Moreover, they possess no proof of their system, which has but recently been invented by them, sometimes resting upon certain numbers, sometimes on syllables, and sometimes, again, on names; and there are occasions, too, when, by means of those letters which are contained in letters, by parables not properly interpreted, or by certain [baseless] conjectures, they strive to establish that fabulous account which they have devised. For if any one should inquire the reason why the Father, who has fellowship with the Son in all things, has been declared by the Lord alone to know the hour and the day [of judgment], he will find at present no more suitable, or becoming, or safe reason than this (since, indeed, the Lord is the only trueMaster), that we may learn through Him that the Father is above all things. For the Father, says He, is greater than I. John 14:28 The Father, therefore, has been declared by our Lordto excel with respect to knowledge; for this reason, that we, too, as long as we are connected with the scheme of things in this world, should leave perfect knowledge, and such questions [as have been mentioned], to God, and should not by any chance, while we seek to investigate the sublime nature of the Father, fall into the danger of starting the question whether there is another God above God.
9. But if any lover of strife contradict what I have said, and also what the apostle affirms, that we know in part, and prophesy in part, 1 Corinthians 13:9 and imagine that he has acquired not a partial, but a universal, knowledge of all that exists, — being such an one as Valentinus, or Ptolemæus, or Basilides, or any other of those who maintain that they have searched out the deep things of God—let him not (arraying himself in vainglory) boast that he has acquired greater knowledge than others with respect to those things which are invisible, or cannot be placed under our observation; but let him, by making diligent inquiry, and obtaining information from the Father, tell us the reasons (which we know not) of those things which are in this world, — as, for instance, the number of hairs on his own head, and the sparrows which are captured day by day, and such other points with which we are not previously acquainted—so that we may credit him also with respect to more important points. But if those who are perfect do not yet understand the very things in their hands, and at their feet, and before their eyes, and on the earth, and especially the rule followed with respect to the hairs of their head, how can we believe them regarding things spiritual, and super-celestial, and those which, with a vain confidence, they assert to be above God? So much, then, I have said concerning numbers, and names, and syllables, and questions respecting such things as are above our comprehension, and concerning their improper expositions of the parables: [I add no more on these points,] since you yourself may enlarge upon them. [Irenaeus 2.28.]

1 cor 12.4 - Men therefore shall see God, that they may live, being made immortal by that sight, and attaining even unto God; which, as I have already said, was declared figuratively by theprophets, that God should be seen by men who bear His Spirit [in them], and do always wait patiently for His coming. As also Moses says in Deuteronomy, We shall see in that day thatGod will talk to man, and he shall live. Deuteronomy 5:24 For certain of these men used to see the prophetic Spirit and His active influences poured forth for all kinds of gifts; others, again, [beheld] the advent of the Lord, and that dispensation which obtained from the beginning, by which He accomplished the will of the Father with regard to things both celestial and terrestrial; and others [beheld] paternal glories adapted to the times, and to those who saw and who heard them then, and to all who were subsequently to hear them. Thus, therefore, was God revealed; for God the Father is shown forth through all these [operations], the Spirit indeed working, and the Son ministering, while the Father was approving, and man's salvationbeing accomplished. As He also declares through Hosea the prophet: I, He says, have multiplied visions, and have used similitudes by the ministry (in manibus) of the prophets.Hosea 12:10 But the apostle expounded this very passage, when he said, Now there are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit; and there are differences of ministrations, but the sameLord; and there are diversities of operations, but it is the same God which works all in all. But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man to profit withal. 1 Corinthians 12:4-7 But as He who works all things in all is God, [as to the points] of what nature and how great He is, [God] is invisible and indescribable to all things which have been made by Him, but He is by no means unknown: for all things learn through His Word that there is one God the Father, who contains all things, and who grants existence to all, as is written in the Gospel: No man has seen God at any time, except the only-begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father; He has declared [Him]. John 1:18 [Irenaeus 4.20.6] and Origen

1 cor 12.4 - 11  I have to remark that these also were promised by the Creator through Christ; and I think that we may derive from this a very just conclusion that the bestowal of a gift is not the work of a god other than Him who is proved to have given the promise. Here is a prophecy of Isaiah: “There shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a flower5541 shall spring up from his root; and upon Him shall rest the Spirit of the Lord.” After which he enumerates the special gifts of the same: “The spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of religion.55425542    Religionis: Sept. εὐσεβείας. And with the fear of the Lord55435543    Timor Dei: Sept. φόβος Θεοῦ. shall the Spirit fill Him.”55445544    Isa. xi. 1–3. In this figure of a flower he shows that Christ was to arise out of the rod which sprang from the stem of Jesse; in other words, from the virgin of the race of David, the son of Jesse. In this Christ the whole substantia of the Spirit would have to rest, not meaning that it would be as it were some subsequent acquisition accruing to Him who was always, even before His incarnation, the Spirit of God;5545 so that you cannot argue from this that the prophecy has reference to that Christ who (as mere man of the race only of David) was to obtain the Spirit of his God. (The prophet says,) on the contrary, that from the time when (the true Christ) should appear in the flesh as the flower predicted,55465546    Floruisset in carne. rising from the root of Jesse, there would have to rest upon Him the entire operation of the Spirit of grace, which, so far as the Jews were concerned, would cease and come to an end. This result the case itself shows; for after this time the Spirit of the Creator never breathed amongst them. From Judah were taken away “the wise man, and the cunning artificer, and the counsellor, and the prophet;”5547 that so it might prove true that “the law and the prophets were until John.”5548 Now hear how he declared that by Christ Himself, when returned to heaven, these spiritual gifts were to be sent: “He ascended up on high,” that is, into heaven; “He led captivity captive,” meaning death or slavery of man; “He gave gifts to the sons of men,”55495549    1 Cor. xii. 4–11; Eph. iv. 8, and Ps. lxviii. 18. that is, the gratuities, which we call charismata. He says specifically “sons of men,”55505550    He argues from his own reading, filiis hominum. and not men promiscuously; thus exhibiting to us those who were the children of men truly so called, choice men, apostles. [Tertullian Against Marcion 5.9]

1 cor 12.4 They who are about to enter baptism ought to pray with repeated prayers, fasts, and bendings of the knee, and vigils all the night through, and with the confession of all by- gone sins, that they may express the meaning even of the baptism of John: "They were baptized," saith (the Scripture), "confessing their own sins."203 To us it is matter for thankfulness if we do now publicly confess our iniquities or our turpitudes:204 for we do at the same time both make satisfaction205 for our former sins, by mortification of our flesh and spirit, and lay beforehand the foundation of defences against the temptations which will closely follow. "Watch and pray," saith (the Lord), "lest ye fall into temptation."206 And the reason, I believe, why they were tempted was, that they fell asleep; so that they deserted the Lord when apprehended, and he who continued to stand by Him, and used the sword, even denied Him thrice: for withal the word had gone before, that "no one untempted should attain the celestial kingdoms."207 The Lord Himself forthwith after baptism208 temptations surrounded, when in forty days He had kept fast. "Then," some one will say," it becomes us, too, rather to fast after baptism."209 Well, and who forbids you, unless it be the necessity for joy, and the thanksgiving for salvation? But so far as I, with my poor powers, understand, the Lord figuratively retorted upon Israel the reproach they had cast on the Lord.210 For the people, after crossing the sea, and being carried about in the desert during forty years, although they were there nourished with divine supplies, nevertheless were more mindful of their belly and their gullet than of God. Thereupon the Lord, driven apart into desert places after baptism,211 showed, by maintaining a fast of forty days, that the man of God lives "not by bread alone," but "by the word of God; "212 and that temptations incident to fulness or immoderation of appetite are shattered by abstinence. Therefore, blessed ones, whom the grace of God awaits, when you ascend from that most sacred font213 of your new birth, and spread your hands214 for the first time in the house of your mother,215 together with your brethren, ask from the Father, ask from the Lord, that His own specialties of grace and distributions of gifts216 may be supplied you. "Ask," saith He, "and ye shall receive."217 Well, you have asked, and have received; you have knocked, and it has been opened to you. Only, I pray that, when you are asking, you be mindful likewise of Tertullian the sinner [Tertullian On Baptism 20]

1 Cor 12.5 no ante-Nicene witnesses

1 Cor 12.6 only Hymanaeus(Ad Paulum Samosatenum) and Origen

1 cor 12.7 - 11 - And now we perceive where, and how, and when the divine apostle mentions the perfect man, and how he shows the differences of the perfect. And again, on the other hand: “The manifestation of the Spirit is given for our profit. For to one is given the word of wisdom by the Spirit; to another the word of knowledge according to the same Spirit; to another faith through the same Spirit; to another the gifts of healing through the same Spirit; to another the working of miracles; to another prophecy; to another discernment of spirits; to another diversities of tongues; to another the interpretation of tongues: and all these worketh the one and the same Spirit, distributing to each one according as He wills.” 2879 Such being the case, the prophets are perfect in prophecy, the righteous in righteousness, and the martyrs in confession, and others in preaching, not that they are not sharers in the common virtues, but are proficient in those to which they are appointed. For what man in his senses would say that a prophet was not righteous? For what? did not righteous men like Abraham prophesy?
“For to one God has given warlike deeds,
To another the accomplishment of the dance,
To another the lyre and song,” 2880
says Homer. “But each has his own proper gift of God” —one in one way, another in another. But the apostles were perfected in all. You will find, then, if you choose, in their acts and writings, knowledge, life, preaching, righteousness, purity, prophecy. We must know, then, that if Paul is young in respect to time 2882 —having flourished immediately after the Lord’s ascension—yet his writings depend on the Old Testament, breathing and speaking of them. For faith in Christ and the knowledge of the Gospel are the explanation and fulfilment of the law; and therefore it was said to the Hebrews, “If ye believe not, neither shall you understand;” 2883 that is, unless you believe what is prophesied in the law, and oracularly delivered by the law, you will not understand the Old Testament, which He by His coming expounded. [Clement of Alexandria, Stromata 4.21]

So long, however, as its form exists in its proper order, you may seek and discuss as much as you please, and give full rein to1999 your curiosity, in whatever seems to you to hang in doubt, or to be shrouded in obscurity. You have at hand, no doubt, some learned2000 brother gifted with the grace of knowledge, some one of the experienced class, some one of your close acquaintance who is curious like yourself; although with yourself, a seeker he will, after all,2001 be quite aware2002 that it is better for you to remain in ignorance, lest you should come to know what you ought not, because you have acquired the knowledge of what you ought to know.2003 “Thy faith,” He says, “hath saved thee”2004 not observe your skill2005 in the Scriptures. Now, faith has been deposited in the rule; it has a law, and (in the observance thereof) salvation. [Tertullian Prescription 14]

1 cor 12.8 - To another prophecy, to another discerning of spirits, to another divers kinds of tongues, to another the interpretation of tongues; "this will be "the spirit of knowledge." [Tertullian Against Marcion 5.9]

1 cor 12.8 - These, moreover, are like “the blind man who leads the blind man, and they both fall into the ditch.”402  And they will receive judgment, because in their talkativeness and their frivolous teaching they teach natural403 wisdom and the “frivolous error of the plausible words of the wisdom of men,”404404    See Col. ii. 8. “according to the will of the prince of the dominion of the air, and of the spirit which works in those men who will not obey, according to the training of this world, and not according to the doctrine of Christ.”405  But if thou hast received “the word of knowledge, or the word of instruction, or of prophecy,”406 blessed be God, “who helps every man without grudging—that God who gives to every man and does not upbraid him.”407  With the gift, therefore, which thou hast received from our Lord, serve thy spiritual brethren, the prophets who know that the words which thou speakest are those of our Lord; and declare the gift which thou hast received in the Church for the edification of the brethren in Christ (for good and excellent are those things which help the men of God), if so be that they are truly with thee.  [Clement First Epistle on Virginity 14]

1 cor 12.11 - and also one Holy Spirit, who wrought [Ignatius Philippians]

1 cor 12.11 And it is manifest that all these gifts [possessed by believers] "worketh one and the self-same Spirit." [Ignatius Philippians ]
The twelve stones, set in four rows on the breast, describe for us the circle of the zodiac, in the four changes of the year. It was otherwise requisite that the law and the prophets should be placed beneath the Lord's head, because in both Testaments mention is made of the righteous. For were we to say that the apostles were at once prophets and righteous, we should say well, "since one and the self-same Holy Spirit works in all."(91) And as the Lord is above the whole world, yea, above the world of thought, so the name engraven on the plate has been regarded to signify, above all rule and authority; and it was inscribed with reference both to the written commandments and the manifestation to sense. And it is the name of God that is expressed; since, as the Son sees the goodness of the Father, God the Saviour works, being called the first principle of all things, which was imaged forth from the invisible God first, and before the ages, and which fashioned all things which came into being after itself. Nay more, the oracle(92) exhibits the prophecy which by the Word cries and preaches, and the judgment that is to come; since it is the same Word which prophesies, and judges, and discriminates all things. [Clement Stromata 5.6 38 § 5 (p.352, l.12) BP1 ]

1 Cor 12.11 Tertullian Against Marcion 5 15 § 6 (p.710, l.6) BP1

1 Cor 12.11 Methodius Conuiuium 7 1 (p.178, l.5) BP2

1 Cor 12.11 Epiphanius Panarion  48 12 § 12 (p.236, l.25 - <) BP4 55 9 § 9 (p.336, l.6 - <) BP4

1 cor 12.12 - Let us take our body for an example.163
163    1 Cor. xii. 12, etc.
 The head is nothing without the feet, and the feet are nothing without the head; yea, the very smallest members of our body are necessary and useful to the whole body. But all work164 harmoniously together, and are under one common rule165 for the preservation of the whole body. [1 Clement 37]

1 Cor 12.12 Justin Dialogue 42 § 3 (p.188, l.7) BP1

1 cor 12.12 - See how the apostle agrees with the prophet both in making the distribution of the one Spirit, and in interpreting His special graces. This, too, I may confidently say: he who has likened the unity of our body throughout its manifold and divers members to the compacting together of the various gifts of the Spirit, 5557shows also that there is but one Lord of the human body and of the Holy Spirit. This Spirit, (according to the apostle’s showing,) 5558 meant not 5559 that the service 5560 of these gifts should be in the body, 5561 nor did He place them in the human body [Tertullian Against Marcion 5.9]

1 Cor 12.12 Clement Instructor 3 101 § 2 (p.291, l.10) BP1

1 Cor 12.12 Tertullian Against Marcion 5 8 § 9 (p.687, l.22) BP1

1 Cor 12.12 Methodius De libero arbitrio (p.749, l.4) BP2

1 cor 12.13 - since "we have been called in one hope of our calling." [Ignatius Philippians]

1 cor 12.13 - This is the one grace of illu mination, that our characters are not the same as before our washing. And since knowledge springs up with illumination, shedding its beams around the mind, the moment we hear, we who were untaught become disciples. Does this, I ask, take place on the advent of this instruction? You cannot tell the time. For instruction leads to faith, and faith with baptism is trained by the Holy Spirit. For that faith is the one universal salvation of humanity, and that there is the same equality before the righteous and loving God, and the same fellowship between Him and all, the apostle most clearly showed, speaking to the following effect: "Before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed, so that the law became our schoolmaster to bring us to Christ, that we might be justified by faith; but after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster." Do you not hear that we are no longer under that law which was accompanied with fear, but under the Word, the master of free choice? Then he subjoined the utterance, clear of all partiality: "For ye are all the children of God through faith in Christ Jesus. For as many as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ. There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus." There are not, then, in the same Word some "illuminated (gnostics); and some animal (or natural) men;" but all who have abandoned the desires of the flesh are equal and spiritual before the Lord. And again he writes in another place: "For by one spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Greeks, whether bond or free, and we have all drunk of one cup." Nor were it absurd to employ the expressions of those who call the reminiscence of better things the filtration of the spirit, understanding by filtration the separation of what is baser, that results from the reminiscence of what is better. There follows of necessity, in him who has come to the recollection of what is better, repentance for what is worse. Accordingly, they confess that the spirit in repentance retraces its steps. In the same way, therefore, we also, repenting of our sins, renouncing our iniquities, purified by baptism, speed back to the eternal light, children to the Father. Jesus therefore, rejoicing in the spirit, said: "I thank Thee, O Father, God of heaven and earth, that Thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them to babes; " the Master and Teacher applying the name babes to us, who are readier to embrace salvation than the wise in the world, who, thinking themselves wise, are inflated with pride.  [Clement Instructor 1.4 31 § 2 (p.108, l.26) BP1 ]

1 Cor 12.13 - Acts of Thomas § 28 (p.144, l.2) BP2

1 Cor 12.13 Gospel of Philip § 49 (p.69, l.29 - >) BP2

1 Cor 12.14 Clement Eclogae ex scripturis propheticis 56 § 4 (p.153, l.10) BP1

1 Cor 12.15 Methodius Resurrection 1 62 § 7 (p.328, l.9 - <) BP2

1 Cor 12.16 only Origen

1 Cor 12.17 only Origen

1 Cor 12.18 only Origen

1 cor 12.18 - But from this we are able to show that there is a unison of powers in these two substances, that is to say, in that of the body and in that of the soul; of which unison that greatest teacher in the Scriptures, Paul, speaks, when he tells us, that "God hath set the members every one of them in the body as it hath pleased Him." But if it seems difficult for you to understand this, and if you do not acquiesce in these statements, I may at all events try to make them good by adducing illustrations. Contemplateman as a kind of temple, according to the similitude of Scripture: the spirit that is in man may thus be likened to the image that dwells in the temple. Well, then, a temple cannot be constituted unless first an occupant is acknowledged for the temple; and, on the other hand, an occupant cannot be settled in the temple unless the structure has been erected. Now, since these two objects, the occupant and the structure, are both consecrated together, how can any antagonism or contrariety be found between them, and how should it not rather appear that they have both been the products of subjects that are in amity and of one mind? And that you may know that this is the case, and that these subjects are truly at one both in fellowship and in lineage, He who knows and hears all has made this response, Let us make man, and so forth. For he who constructs the temple interrogates him who fashions the image, and I inquires carefully about the measurements of magnitude, and breadth, and bulk, in order that he may mark off the space for the foundations in accordance with these dimensions; and no one sets about the vain task of building a temple without first making himself acquainted with the measurement needed for the placing of the image. In like manner, therefore, the mode and the measure of the body are made the subject of inquiry, in order that the soul may be appropriately lodged in it by God, the Artificer of all things. But if any one say that he who has moulded the body is an enemy to the God who is the Creator of my soul, then how is it that, while regarding each other with a hostile eye, these two parties have not brought disreputeupon the work, by bringing it about either that he who constructs the temple should make it of such narrow dimensions as to render it incapable of accommodating what is placed within it, or that he who fashions the image should come with something so massive and ponderous, that, on its introduction into the temple, the edifice would at once collapse? If such is not the case, then, with these things, let us contemplate them in the light of what we know to be the objects and intents of antagonists. But if it is right for all to be disposed with the same measures and the same equity, and to be d splayed with like glory, what doubt should we still entertain on this subject? We add, if it please you, this one illustration more. Man appears to resemble a ship which has been constructed by the builder and launched into the deep, which, however, it is impossible to navigate without the rudder, by which it can be kept under command, and turned in whatsoever direction its steersman may wish to sail. Also, that the rudder and the whole body of the ship require the same artificer, is a matter admitting no doubt; for without the rudder the whole structure of the ship, that huge body, will be an inert mass. And thins, then, we say that the soul is the rudder of the body; that both these, moreover, are ruled by that liberty of judgment and sentiment which we possess, and which corresponds to the steersman; and that when these two are made one by, union, and thus possess a unison of function applicable to all kinds of work, whatever may be the products of their own operation, they bear a testimony to the fact that they have both one and the same author and maker. [Acts of Archelaus 19, 20]

1 Cor 12.19 no ante-Nicene witness

1 Cor 12.20 only pseudo-Hippolytus and Origen

1 Cor 12.21 Clement Eclogae ex scripturis propheticis 56 § 4 (p.153, l.10) BP1

1 Cor 12.22 only Origen

1 cor 12.23 - To recapitulate, then: Shall that very flesh, which the Divine Creator formed with His own hands in the image of God; which He animated with His own afflatus, after the likeness of His own vital vigour; which He set over all the works of His hand, to dwell amongst, to enjoy, and to rule them; which He clothed with His sacraments and His instructions; whose purity He loves, whose mortifications He approves; whose sufferings for Himself He deems precious;—(shall that flesh, I say), so often brought near to God, not rise again?  God forbid, God forbid, (I repeat), that He should abandon to everlasting destruction the labour of His own hands, the care of His own thoughts, the receptacle of His own Spirit,7343 the queen of His creation, the inheritor of His own liberality, the priestess of His religion, the champion of His testimony, the sister of His Christ! We know by experience the goodness of God; from His Christ we learn that He is the only God, and the very good. Now, as He requires from us love to our neighbour after love to Himself,7344 so He will Himself do that which He has commanded. He will love the flesh which is, so very closely and in so many ways, His neighbour—(He will love it), although infirm, since His strength is made perfect in weakness;7345 although disordered, since “they that are whole need not the physician, but they that are sick;”7346 although not honourable, since “we bestow more abundant honour upon the less honourable members;”7347 although ruined, since He says, “I am come to save that which was lost;”7348 although sinful, since He says, “I desire rather the salvation of the sinner than his death;”7349 although condemned, for says He, “I shall wound, and also heal.”7350 Why reproach the flesh with those conditions which wait for God, which hope in God, which receive honour from God, which He succours? I venture to declare, that if such casualties as these had never befallen the flesh, the bounty, the grace, the mercy, (and indeed) all the beneficent power of God, would have had no opportunity to work. [Tertullian On the Resurrection of the Flesh 9 § 4 (p.932, l.16) BP1] and Origen

1 Cor 12.24 Adamantius Dialogues (p.104, l.29 - < )) BP2 and Origen

1 Cor 12.25 only Origen

1 Cor 12.25 Epiphanius Panarion  42 11 § 8 (p.122, l.17 - *<) BP4 42 12 § 3 (p.168, l.1 - *<) BP4 42 12 § 3 (p.168, l.2 - <) BP4

1 cor 12.26 - but call them back as suffering and straying members, that ye may save your whole body. For by so acting ye shall edify yourselves [Polycarp Philippians]

1 Cor 12.26 Tertullian De paenitentia 10 § 5 (p.337, l.18) BP1

1 cor 12.27 - Universally inherent was the virus of lust— the dregs which are formed out of milk contain it— (dregs) fitted (for so doing), in that even the waters themselves had not yet been bathed. But when the Word of God descended into flesh—(flesh) not unsealed even by marriage,— and the Word was made flesh, — (flesh) never to be unsealed by marriage,— which was to find its way to the tree not of incontinence, but of endurance; which was to taste from that tree not anything sweet, but something bitter; which was to pertain not to the infernal regions, but to heaven; which was to be precinct not with the leaves of lasciviousness, but the flowers of holiness; which was to impart to the waters its own purities— thenceforth, whatever flesh (is) in Christ has lost its pristine soils, is now a thing different, emerges in a new state, no longer (generated) of the slime ofnatural seed, nor of the grime of concupiscence, but of pure water and a clean Spirit. And, accordingly, why excuse it on the ground of pristine precedent? It did not bear the names ofbody of Christ, of members of Christ, of temple of God, at the time when it used to obtain pardon for adultery. And thus if, from the moment when it changed its condition, andhaving been baptized into Christ put on Christ, and was redeemed with a great price— the blood, to wit, of the Lord and Lamb — you take hold of any one precedent (be itprecept, or law, or sentence,) of indulgence granted, or to be granted, to adultery and fornication—you have likewise at our hands a definition of the time from which the age of the question dates. [Tertullian On Modesty 6 ]

1 Cor 12.27 Clement Excerpta e Theodoto 22 § 3 (p.100, l.12 - *) BP and Origen

1 cor 12.28 - For all the heretics have decided that theDemiurge was ignorant of that Power above him, whose witness and herald John is found to be. Wherefore the Lord said that He deemed him more than a prophet. Matthew 11:9; Luke 7:26For all the other prophets preached the advent of the paternal Light, and desired to be worthy of seeing Him whom they preached; but John did both announce [the advent] beforehand, in a like manner as did the others, and actually saw Him when He came, and pointed Him out, and persuaded many to believe in Him, so that he did himself hold the place of both prophet andapostle. For this is to be more than a prophet, because, first apostles, secondarily prophets; 1 Corinthians 12:28 but all things from one and the same God Himself. [Irenaeus 3.11.4]

1 cor 12.28 - Thus, then, have all these men been exposed, who bring in impious doctrines regarding our Maker and Framer, who also formed this world, and above whom there is no other God; and those have been overthrown by their own arguments who teach falsehoods regarding the substance of our Lord, and the dispensation which He fulfilled for the sake of His own creature man. But [it has, on the other hand, been shown], that the preaching of the Church is everywhere consistent, and continues in an even course, and receives testimony from the prophets, the apostles, and all the disciples—as I have proved— through [those in] the beginning, the middle, and the end, 3781 and through the entire dispensation of God, and that well-grounded system which tends 3782 to man’s salvation, namely, our faith; which, having been received from the Church, we do preserve, and which always, by the Spirit of God, renewing its youth, as if it were some precious deposit in an excellent vessel, causes the vessel itself containing it to renew its youth also. For this gift of God has been entrusted to the Church, as breath was to the first created man, 3783 for this purpose, that all the members receiving it may be vivified; and the [means of] communion with Christ has been distributed throughout it, that is, the Holy Spirit, the earnest of incorruption, the means of confirming our faith, and the ladder of ascent to God. “For in the Church,” it is said, “God hath set apostles, prophets, teachers,” 3784 and all the other means through which the Spirit works; of which all those are not partakers who do not join themselves to the Church, but defraud themselves of life through their perverse opinions and infamous behaviour. For where the Church is, there is the Spirit of God; and where the Spirit of God is, there is the Church, and every kind of grace; but the Spirit is truth. Those, therefore, who do not partake of Him, are neither nourished into life from the mother’s breasts, nor do they enjoy that most limpid fountain which issues from the body of Christ; but they dig for themselves broken cisterns 3785 out of earthly trenches, and drink putrid water out of the mire, fleeing from the faith of the Church lest they be convicted; and rejecting the Spirit, that they may not be instructed. [Irenaeus 3.24.4]

1 cor 12.28 - Such presbyters does the Church nourish, of whom also the prophet says: I will give your rulers in peace, and your bishops in righteousness. Isaiah 60:17 Of whom also did the Lorddeclare, Who then shall be a faithful steward (actor), good and wise, whom the Lord sets over His household, to give them their meat in due season? Blessed is that servant whom hisLord, when He comes, shall find so doing. Matthew 24:45-46 Paul then, teaching us where one may find such, says, God has placed in the Church, first, apostles; secondly, prophets; thirdly, teachers. 1 Corinthians 12:28 Where, therefore, the gifts of the Lord have been placed, there it behooves us to learn the truth, [namely,] from those who possess that succession of the Church which is from the apostles, and among whom exists that which is sound and blameless in conduct, as well as that which is unadulterated and incorrupt in speech. For these also preserve this faith of ours in one God who created all things; and they increase that love [which we have] for the Son of God, who accomplished such marvellous dispensations for our sake: and they expound the Scriptures to us without danger, neither blaspheming God, nor dishonouring the patriarchs, nor despising the prophets. [Irenaeus AH 4.26.5]

1 Cor 12.28 Clement Virginity 1 12 § 5 (p.24, l.12 - >) BP2

1 Cor 12.29 Pseudo-Cyprian 21 (p.198, l.3 - <) BP2

1 cor 12.29 - And they hearken not to that which the Scripture has said: "Let not many be teachers among you, my brethren, and be not all of you prophets." [Clement First Epistle on Virginity 1 11 § 4 (p.19, l.27) BP2 ]

1 Cor 12.30 Tertullian Against Marcion 5 8 § 5 (p.687, l.23) BP1

1 Cor 12.31 Clement Quis Dives Salvetur 38 § 1 (p.184, l.21) BP1

1 Cor 12.31 Cyprian De centesima sexagesima trigesima § 51 (p.88, l.387) BP2

1 cor 12.31 - This Spirit, (according to the apostle’s showing,)5558 meant not5559 that the service5560 of these gifts should be in the body,5561 nor did He place them in the human body); and on the subject of the superiority of love5562 above all these gifts, He even taught the apostle that it was the chief commandment,5563
5563    Compare 1 Cor. xii. 31; xiii. 1, 13. just as Christ has shown it to be: “Thou shalt love the Lord with all thine heart and soul,5564 with all thy strength, and with all thy mind, and thy neighbour as thine own self.”5565 When he mentions the fact that “it is written in the law,”5566 how that the Creator would speak with other tongues and other lips, whilst confirming indeed the gift of tongues by such a mention, he yet cannot be thought to have affirmed that the gift was that of another god by his reference to the Creator’s prediction.5567 In precisely the same manner,5568 when enjoining on women silence in the church, that they speak not for the mere sake5569 of learning5570 (although that even they have the right of prophesying, he has already shown5571 when he covers the woman that prophesies with a veil), he goes to the law for his sanction that woman should be under obedience.5572 Now this law, let me say once for all, he ought to have made no other acquaintance with, than to destroy it. But that we may now leave the subject of spiritual gifts, facts themselves will be enough to prove which of us acts rashly in claiming them for his God, and whether it is possible that they are opposed to our side, even if5573 the Creator promised them for His Christ who is not yet revealed, as being destined only for the Jews, to have their operations in His time, in His Christ, and among His people. Let Marcion then exhibit, as gifts of his god, some prophets, such as have not spoken by human sense, but with the Spirit of God, such as have both predicted things to come, and have made manifest5574 the secrets of the heart;5575 let him produce a psalm, a vision, a prayer5576—only let it be by the Spirit,5577 in an ecstasy, that is, in a rapture,5578 whenever an interpretation of tongues has occurred to him; let him show to me also, that any woman of boastful tongue5579 in his community has ever prophesied from amongst those specially holy sisters of his. Now all these signs (of spiritual gifts) are forthcoming from my side without any difficulty, and they agree, too, with the rules, and the dispensations, and the instructions of the Creator; therefore without doubt the Christ, and the Spirit, and the apostle, belong severally5580 to my God. Here, then, is my frank avowal for any one who cares to require it. [Tertullian Against Marcion 5. 8 § 9 (p.687, l.22) BP1 ]

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