Friday, November 16, 2012

Decisive Proof that the Name Marcion Originally Meant 'Those of Mark'

I am not sure if people are aware that I actually have a beautiful wife.  I know many people say that they have a beautiful wife because they have to say it.  But here is my beautiful wife.  She really is better looking than I deserve.  She actually met John Bon Jovi on Wednesday night and he tried to pick her up apparently (I wasn't there so I don't know).  The point is that readers of this blog should be appreciative of the fact that instead of spending time with my wife I literally went line by line through Epiphanius's Panarion to see whether or not there are clear examples of the -ίων suffix being added to names to mean 'those of -----' in the manner of Jewish synagogal evidence in Greek.

The point then was to take our original argument one step further.  It isn't just that Jewish voluntary associations are named after someone by taking their name and adding the -ίων suffix.  Some of the earliest Christian groups, those which date back to our earliest sources, betray the exact same tendency.  In any event before I give the entire list of names with the -ίων suffix in the Panarion (only the ones that are of interest are emboldened) allow me to focus on the 'prize discoveries,' the most important being Epiphanius's Καρποκρᾶς and the Καρποκρασίων.

It has long been established that Epiphanius had in front of him the original account of Hegesippus where Carpocrates is first mentioned.  The other Church Fathers used an ever changing syntagma. Lawlor established quite convincingly that Epiphanius is often citing directly from the text of Hegesippus and the fact that he entitled the section on the Carpocratians Κατὰ Καρποκρασίων (= Καρποκρᾶς + ίων) is extraordinarily significant for our theory.  The entry continues:

Carpocrates (Καρποκρᾶς) makes another, for he founded his own unlawful school of his falsely named opinion, and his character is the worst of all. (For the sect of what is falsely termed 'Knowledge,' which called its members Gnostics, arose from all of these—Simon and Menander, Satornilus, Basilides and Nicolaus, Carpocrates himself (τοῦ Καρποκρᾶ), and further, because of Valentinus. I have already given a description of one branch of it—the 'Knowledgeable,' though in their behaviour they are despicable.)

The original form of the name is used throughout the entry but Epiphanius employs the familiar Καρποκρατιανῶν when copying out the account of the Ebionites from another source.  For what it is worth, Epiphanius uses both the form Ἐβίων and Ἐβίωνα as if the Evionim were founded by a man of that name (so do Hipp. Refut. 7.34.1; PsT 3.3; Jer. Adv. Lucif. 23; Doctr. Pat. 41; Tert. Carn. Chr. 14; 18; 24; Virg. Vel. 6; Praescr. 10; 33).  The sect is here called Ἐβιωναίων.

More significant is Epiphanius's use of the term Μαρκωσίων.  The form is irregular.  One would expect Μαρκίων from Μάρκος + ίων.  The collective form is interestingly never used in either Against Heresies or the Philosophumena.  One can make a strong case that a source is going out of its way to avoid (or deliberately altered) Μαρκίων.  Note also that the name appears in the title of the section 'against the Marcosians' (= Κατὰ Μαρκωσίων) and Epiphanius mentions a book of Irenaeus with this title.  It is followed by another name directly taken from the same book certainly - the Κολορβασίων from their alleged founder Κολόρβασος (Κολορβασίων = Κολόρβασος - suffix ος + ίων).  The naturalness of this form makes Μαρκωσίων seem even more strange especially as they come from the same book.

Another construction from Irenaeus or the syntagma are the Ἐπιφανείων from their founder Ἐπιφάνης.  Note also the Οὐαλησίων from their founder Οὐάλης.  How far are we from taking a second look at the construction of the Οὐαλεντινιανος from Οὐάλεντος. Οὐάλεντος is the genitive of Οὐάλης.  The names of heretics seem to have also taken another route through Latina and then back into Greek with the -ιανος ending.  I still have a suspicion that the original Marcionite name for their sect was Χρηστός + ίων.

Ἀρμενίων (Ἀρμενίας)
Καρδυαίων (Καρδυαία)
Ἀσσυρίων (Ἀσσυρίοις)
Αἰγυπτίων (Αἴγυπτος, Αἰγύπτιος)
Βασιλειῶν (βασιλείας)
Σεβουαίων (Σεβουαίοις, Σεβουαῖοι)
Σκηνοπηγιῶν (Σκηνοπηγίαν)
Νασαραίων (Νασαραῖοι) Καρδυαίων
Ὀσσαίων (Ὀσσαῖοι)
Σαμψαίων (Σαμψὼν, Σαμψηνοῖς, Σαμψίταις, Σαμψαῖοι)
Ἐβιωναίων (sing. Ἐβίων/Ἐβίωνα, Ἐβίωνος, Ἐβίωνι, Ἐβιωνῖται, Ἐβιωναίοις, Ἐβιωναῖοι)Ναζωραίων (Ναζωραῖον, Ναζωραίους, Ναζωραῖοι)
Σαδδουκαίων (Σαδδούκ, Σαδδουκαίους, Σαδδουκαῖοι)
Φαρισαίων (Φαρισαίους, Φαρισαῖος, Φαρισαίου, Φαρισαίοις, Φαρισαῖοι)
Ἰδουμαίων (Ἰδουμαίᾳ, Ἰδουμαίαν, Ἰδουμαῖον)
Τυρίων (= Tyrians, sing. Τύριος)
Ῥωμαίων (Ῥωμαιος, Ῥωμαίους, Ῥωμαίοις, Ῥωμανίᾳ)
Καρποκρασίων (sing. Καρποκρᾶς, Καρποκρᾶ, Καρποκρᾶν, Καρποκράτους, Καρποκράτει, Καρποκρατῖται, Καρποκρατιανῶν)
Ἰεσσαίων (Ἰεσσαί, Ἰεσσαίους, Ἰεσσαῖοι)
Βεροιαίων (Βεροίας)
Ἑβραίων (Ἑβραϊκῶν, Ἑβραΐδι, Ἑβραϊκὴν)
Κυπρίων (Κύπριος, Κύπριδος, Κύπριον, Κύπριοι)
Μανιχαίων (Μανιχαῖον, Μανιχαίους, Μανιχαῖοι,
Μαρκωσίων (sing. Μάρκος, pl. Μαρκώσιοι)Κολορβασίων (sing. Κολόρβασος)Ἐλλιὼν
Μαρκίων (Μαρκίωνος, Μαρκίωνι, Μαρκιωνιστῶν)
Ἐπιφανείων (Ἐπιφάνης, Ἐπιφάνην, Ἐπιφάνους, Ἐπιφανείων) Ἐλκεσαίων (Ἐλκεσαῖοι, Ἐλκεσαίοις)
Οὐαλησίων (Οὐάλης, Οὐαλήσιοι)Ἀμορραίων (Ἀμορραῖον, Ἀμορραῖοι, Ἀμορραίους)
Ἰεβουσαίων (Ἰεβοὺς, Ἰεβουσαῖον)
Εὐαίων, Χαναναίων Χετταίων Ἀρουκαίων Ἀσαναίων Θεοδοτίων Βαβυλωνίων Ἀσσυρίων Παννωνίων

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Stephan Huller's Observations by Stephan Huller
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