Tuesday, June 1, 2021

Applying My Experience in Scholarly Research to Something Useful for a Change

Many of you who still read this blog must have been wondering to yourselves - WTF is all this obsession with his wife's genealogy?  I was not - as Borat would say - looking for signs of retardation in the family although it is fascinating to realize how much intermarrying was going on.  Like many things in my life it had everything to do with football or 'soccer' as they call it over here.  

My son has a dream to play professionally.  But being born with an American passport pretty much assures no possibility of ever playing at the highest level.  There are over three million youth 'soccer players' in the United States and about 360 American players in MLS.  Of those 360 no more than 2 or 3 start in a given game. Given that there are 27 MLS clubs the reality is that two million boys across the country are fighting for 81 positions.  

The place to play football of course is Europe.  But there are tight rules in place to limit foreign players.  In La Liga for instance there are strict rules about only having 5 non-EU players on their rosters and clubs can only name 3 non-EU players to their game squads.  In the second division it drops to 2 non-EU players.  

Clearly it would be an advantage to have EU citizenship and now he stands a really good chance given what I found in his genealogy:


So all that ambition to trace the lineage of my wife's family ended up bearing great fruit but not in the way I originally expected ...

Saturday, May 29, 2021

De Leyvas in Early Venezuelan History

 2503./Leiva , Diego de vino con los Welser y " fue uno de los primeros descubridores de estas Indias ” a su costa y minción ( 6 / 129 ) ; anduvo en la expedición de los pacabueyes , que costó la vida a Ambrosio de Alfínger ; fallecido éste , con Pedro de Limpias y en disolución las tropas , con algunos compañeros , por tierras desérticas y sin agua , con miles de trabajos , lograron llegar al Cabo de la Vega , donde fueron auxiliados ( 57 / 185 s . ) ; en 1545 fue de los primeros pobladores de Nuestra Señora de la Concepción del Tocuyo ( 5/184 ) ; en Coro había sido albacea de un tal Juan de Villegas , ( 130/511 ) , distinto del fundador de Nueva Segovia ; fue padre de Catalina de Leiva de los fundadores de Guanare y suegra de Hernando de Ocampo ( 42 / 57 ) . Establecido en Borburata , salió con Perálvarez a perseguir a unos indios que habían matado a los españoles Pascual de Olivares y Martín González , prendió a Guasina , éste lo mordió en la mano , el indio salió herido en la cara y murió  ( 145/351 ) . 

2504. / Leiva , Juan de , albañil ; en Mérida , el 07-02-1592 , recibe poder del residente Pedro Nieto Calatrava para cobrar ciento cuatro pesos y tres tomines de oro , a las personas que se le señalan (80/64) 

2505. / Leiva , Luis de , en 1569 era  “ mancebo hasta de veinticuatro años , pero de prudencia y juicio de cincuenta ” ( 67/532 ) , " caballero de ( Calatrava ) y muy buen soldado ( 51/265 ) . Acompañante de don Pedro Maraver de Silva en su expedición de descubrimiento y conquista de la Nueva Extremadura . Al recibir don Pedro comunicación del Capitán Céspedes , en la cual éste le participaba que él y su gente habían  resuelto no seguirlo , envió a don Luis de Leiva con treinta hombres para que donde hallase a Céspedes , procurase reducir  los soldados a la obediencia y ahorcase a Céspedes ; pero don Luis , quizá obstinado de los modales de Maraver de Silva , resolvió abandonar a éste y fraternizar con aquel ; es de imaginar la cara que pondría Maraver  de Silva al enterarse de esta nueva pérdida .

2503./Leiva, Diego came with the Welsers and "was one of the first discoverers of these Indies" at their expense and mintion (6/129); he walked on the oxpaw expedition, which cost Ambrosio de Alfínger's life ; After he died, with Pedro de Limpias and in dissolution the troops, with some companions, through desert lands and without water, with thousands of jobs, they managed to reach Cabo de la Vega, where they were helped (57/185 s.); in 1545 was one of the first settlers of Nuestra Señora de la Concepción del Tocuyo (5/184); in Coro he had been executor of a certain Juan de Villegas, (130/511), different from the founder of Nueva Segovia; he was the father of Catalina de Leiva of the founders of Guanare and mother-in-law of Hernando de Ocampo (42/57). Established in Borburata, he went out with Perálvarez to chase some Indians who had killed the Spaniards Pascual de Olivares and Martín González, arrested Guasina, who bit him in the hand, the Indian was wounded in the face and he died (145/351).

2504. / Leiva, Juan de, bricklayer; In Mérida, on 02-07-1592, he received power of attorney from the resident Pedro Nieto Calatrava to collect one hundred and four pesos and three gold tomines, from the persons indicated to him (80/64).

2505. / Leiva, Luis de, in 1569 was “a young man up to twenty-four years old, but of prudence and judgment of fifty” (67/532), "a gentleman from (Calatrava) and a very good soldier (51/265). Companion of Don Pedro Maraver de Silva on his expedition to discover and conquer New Extremadura.When Don Pedro received a communication from Captain Céspedes, in which he participated that he and his people had decided not to follow him, he sent Don Luis de Leiva with thirty men so that wherever he found Céspedes, he would try to reduce the soldiers to obedience and hang Céspedes; but Don Luis, perhaps obstinate in Maraver de Silva's manners, decided to abandon him and fraternize with him; one can imagine the face he would make Maraver de Silva upon learning of this new loss.

Proof that Men from Murcia were Predominant in the Welser Mission (1529 - 1542)

 Agrega que inmediatamente fue a España a pretender la Gobernación y la obtuvo , pero que su nombramiento fue revocado , designándose en su lugar a Espira , de quien quedó Federmann como segundo o sea Teniente General . Que en esta virtud , los dos , con 400 hombres que levantaron en Andalucía y Murcia, salieron con cinco embarcaciones del puerto de San Lúcar el año de 33 , pero habiendo padecido rigurosas tormentas que los ( 17 ) Copia de esta carta  existe en la Biblioteca de nuestra Academia Nacional de la Historia 

Juan de Leiva and the Transformation of the Government of Mula and Lorca

The Villa de Mula would have been governed by a wide college, in which the members succeeded each other by annual rotation. A similar system is in force in the regional capital between the municipal reform of 1399 and the institution of life regiments with Juan II. And in Lorca, until 1490. The establishment of such a college represented in Murcia an attempt to extend the political base of the municipal institution beyond the small group of pre-eminent lineages. And it is known that his disappearance corresponds, in the two main cities of the Kingdom of Murcia, to a reinforcement of the oligarchy. In Mula, too, everything changed around 1470 when a neighbor named Juan de Leiva asked that the trades be chosen from among the most capable of the town and not among "the thirty-six individuals." "He was listened to and from that moment on it was done like this ...". From that moment, the unit of the dominant oligarchy rotates (the thirty-six individuals), the lords of Mula will take advantage of the opportunity to place people of their trust at the head of municipal positions until 1510 the total number of the City Council is reached. A living example of how a request from an honest citizen with apparent good intentions to elect the most capable may have someone behind it without such good intentions. It is possible that the Lord has taken advantage of the disunity of the oligarchy and the constitution of a party favorable to the extension of his power. However a resistance movement is drawn. Already in 1480, the council sent Diego de Leiva to complain about the appointments made in the town before the Lord to which he replied that “your good practices and customs in choosing your offices in the town council are kept by me. ... ”

The de Leiva Family were Puppets of the Marquis de los Velez

 Y es que Mula no es una excepción en la Castilla medieval , sobre todo durante la centuria del cuatrocientos , en la que los cargos municipales se los reservaba un número reducido de vecinos , normalmente la pequeña nobleza y los cuantiosos , que , poco a poco , irán ascendiendo a la hidalguía ( 101 ) . Todo cambia , aparentemente , hacia 1470 cuando un vecino de la villa llamado Juan de Leiva , posiblemente criado del Marqués de los Vélez , ipidió ! ¿desde el respalda de los Fajardo?, que los oficios se escogieran entre los más capaces de localidad y no entre esa minoría. Se le hizo caso «e desde alli adelante se hiço asi» (1.02) . A partir de este momento se puede empezar a rastrear la injerencia de las Marqueses en el equilibrio de fuerzas, pues roto el orden anterior, pronto comienzan a capar el Ayuntamiento, coma se ha visto en el anterior apartado, y a designar alcaldes mayores. Mula na es, en absoluta, un caso aislada. Hay en día se sabe que las luchas de bandos, hasta ahora estudiadas mayoritariamente por lös medievalistas, prosiguen a la largo de la Edad Moderna en gran parte de los municipios del Reino de Murcia, y terminan con las enfrentamientos políticas del sigla XIX (103).

And it is that Mula is not an exception in medieval Castile, especially during the four hundredth century, in which municipal offices were reserved for a small number of residents, usually the petty nobility and large numbers, who, little by little, they will rise to the nobility (101). Everything changes, apparently, around 1470 when a neighbor of the town named Juan de Leiva, possibly a servant of the Marqués de los Vélez, asked! From the backing of the Fajardos? That the trades were chosen among the most capable of the locality and not among that minority. He paid attention to him "and from then on it was done like this" (1.02). From this moment on, the interference of the Marquis in the balance of forces can begin to be traced, since once the previous order has been broken, they soon begin to cover up the City Council, as has been seen in the previous section, and to appoint mayors. Mula na is, absolutely, an isolated case. Today it is known that the fights of sides, until now studied mainly by the medievalists, continue throughout the Modern Age in a large part of the municipalities of the Kingdom of Murcia, and end with the political confrontations of the 19th century (103) .

Some Clues About the Background of the de Leiva Family in Lorca

Edward Cooper writes:

La muerte de Fernando efectivamente suelta el freno en las relaciones del marqués con sus principales enemigos . Una confrontación suspendida desde 1504 comienza de nuevo en cámara : el 17 de septiembre de 1516 un Gines de Tiruel renunció su regimiento de Lorca en Alonso de Leiva , escribano del concejo , para acudir a la campagna de Africa.  Leiva a su vez , renunció a la escribanía en su hermano Diego de Leiva el mozo . Pero los oponentes de este negocio empezaron a actuar . El regidor Franciso Pérez Navarro había protestado ante la Corona , el 22 de septiembre , afirmando que el nombramiento a la vacante era prerrogativa de los demás regidores , y que Leiva no era apto en cualquier caso porque era natural de Mula e hijo de un vasallo69 del marqués de los Vélez .

El 11 de noviembre de 1516 , basándose en una provisión real del 3 de junio de 1514 sobre un caso anterior , obtenida por el comunero70 de la ciudad , el bachiller Piñeiro , los regidores votaron sobre la propuesta de una elección para Salieron a favor los contrarios de Alonso de Leiva ( e ipso facto del marqués ) : Alonso Ponce de León , Martín de Morata , Juan y Adrián Leonés , Juan Mateo71 y Juan de Guevara72 . La minoría aceptó a Leiva y no quería más procesos . Se suponen partidarios del marqués : Alonso García Guevara , Corella Fajardo73 y Pedro Navarro de Álava . El 27 de noviembre de 1516 Alonso de Leiva nombró procuradores74 . Cabe suponer que se arregló la disputa con el nombramiento75 , el 24 de febrero de 1517 , de Alonso de Leiva como sucesor de Ginés de Tiruel . Pero la victoria del Tiruel . Pero la victoria del marqués ya había sido marginada por las alteraciones en una zona colindante . Desde 1513 Huéscar76 había estado en manos del duque de Alba contra quien su población , la mayoría moriscos , se levantó mientras el cabildo de Lorca discutía su composición . El Cardenal Cisneros creía ver77 la mano del marqués de los Vélez detrás de esta rebelión en contraste con la calma del marquesado vecino , étnicamente idéntico . El subterfugio de Ginés de Tiruel le hubiera convencido poco . Dada su participación en una acción parecida en febrero de 1521 , es difícil de creer que se ausentara en vísperas de ésta . Es decir que , si se marchó realmente a África , es lógico que lo hiciera sólo después de haber servido al marqués en Huéscar , para ocultar sus huellas . La represalia ducal tendría que caer entonces sobre otra parte . El 5 de mayo de 1520 el marqués envía78 desde Cuevas del Almanzora órdenes para comenzar la construcción del castillo de Mula . El día 17 , el pendón comunero fue levantado por primera vez en Murcia en la plaza de Santa Eulalia79 . A imitación del golpe de Huéscar los muleños tomaron80 , el 1.o de julio , la fortaleza apenas comenzada , para desembarazarse del régimen del marqués . El cabecilla fue Juan Piñeiro , escribano . Se resistieron a la expulsión durante tres semanas . El marqués contaba siempre con cierto apoyo en el sector hidalgo de la población y sus aliados acaudillados por los hermanos Blaya81 en un intento de arrojar a los rebeldes . Actuando 

69 seguramente era pariente de Juan y Diego de Lieva

Fernando's death effectively releases the brake on the marquis's relations with his main enemies. A confrontation suspended since 1504 begins again on camera: on September 17, 1516, a Gines de Tiruel resigned his regiment from Lorca in Alonso de Leiva, notary of the council, to go to the African campaign. Leiva at the same time, resigned from the clerk's office in his brother Diego de Leiva the waiter. But the opponents of this business began to act. Regidor Franciso Pérez Navarro had protested to the Crown on September 22, affirming that the appointment to the vacancy was the prerogative of the other regidores, and that Leiva was not suitable in any case because he was a native of Mula and the son of a vassal69 of the Marquis de los Vélez.

On November 11, 1516, based on a royal provision of June 3, 1514 on a previous case, obtained by the community member70 of the city, the bachelor Piñeiro, the councilors voted on the proposal of an election for the opposites. of Alonso de Leiva (and ipso facto of the Marquis): Alonso Ponce de León, Martín de Morata, Juan and Adrián Leonés, Juan Mateo71 and Juan de Guevara72. The minority accepted Leiva and did not want any further proceedings. Supporters of the marquis are supposed to be: Alonso García Guevara, Corella Fajardo73 and Pedro Navarro de Álava. On November 27, 1516, Alonso de Leiva appointed procuradores74. It can be assumed that the dispute was settled with the appointment75, on February 24, 1517, of Alonso de Leiva as successor to Ginés de Tiruel. But the victory of Tiruel. But the victory of the marquis had already been marginalized by alterations in an adjoining area. Since 1513 Huéscar76 had been in the hands of the Duke of Alba, against whom his population, the majority Moorish, rose up while the council of Lorca discussed its composition. Cardinal Cisneros believed he saw77 the hand of the Marquis de los Vélez behind this rebellion in contrast to the calm of the ethnically identical neighboring marquisate. Ginés de Tiruel's subterfuge would have convinced him little. Given his participation in a similar action in February 1521, it is hard to believe that he was absent on the eve of it. In other words, if he really went to Africa, it is logical that he did so only after having served the marquis in Huéscar, to hide his traces. Ducal retaliation would then have to fall on another party. On May 5, 1520, the Marquis sent78 orders from Cuevas del Almanzora to begin the construction of the castle of Mula. On the 17th, the community banner was raised for the first time in Murcia in the Plaza de Santa Eulalia79. In imitation of Huéscar's coup, the Muleños took, on July 1, the fortress that had just begun, to get rid of the marquis's regime. The leader was Juan Piñeiro, a clerk. They resisted expulsion for three weeks. The marquis always had some support in the hidalgo sector of the population and his allies led by the Blaya brothers81 in an attempt to drive out the rebels. Acting

69 he was surely related to Juan and Diego de Lieva

How do we know that the de Leiva's are from Mula and the Marquis de los Velez?  The evidence provided by the author (only fragmentary because of Google books:

El día de San Juan , observando la costumbre de los regimientos rotativos , procedieron26 al nombramiento de Alonso Fernández Melgarejo y Juan de Leiva , el mismo Juan de Leiva que el 11 de noviembre de 1468 logró la escribanía27 del concejo de Mula ... Es por ello por lo que el marqués de los Vélez hace recordar a su solicitador la figura de Juan de Leiva setenta años después : acabando de leer vuestra carta dezisme en ella que los de Mula pruevan

On Saint John's Day, observing the custom of rotating regiments, they proceeded26 to appoint Alonso Fernández Melgarejo and Juan de Leiva, the same Juan de Leiva who on November 11, 1468 became the clerk27 of the council of Mula ... This is why the Marquis de los Vélez reminds his solicitor of the figure of Juan de Leiva seventy years later: after just reading your letter of zisme in it that those of Mula prove 

What is the significance of the Marquis de los Velez?  He was behind some of the early explorations of South America.  Another important note to fill in the gaps.  The king of Spain was German speaking:

Charles V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria from 1519 to 1556, King of Spain (Castile and Aragon) from 1516 to 1556, and Lord of the Netherlands as titular Duke of Burgundy from 1506 to 1555

who also had a role in the installation of the heirs to the Marquis de los Velez:

Marquis of Molina is a Castilian noble title that the Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor granted to the heirs to the Marquis of Los Vélez. The title was given to Luis Fajardo, 2nd Marquis of los Vélez. For centuries "Marquis de Molina" was the courtesy title of the apparent heir of the Marquis de los Vélez. The grant did not bring new fiefs to the family, since it was just an elevation of the rank of the Lordship of Molina de Segura, owned by the Fajardo family since 1387.

But the presence of a single man Lorca - Diego de Leiva - all seems to be making sense little by little.   

Absolute Certainty About the Lorcan Background of Diego de Leyva

NOMBRE PROCEDENCIA FUENTE Francisco Cerrado España OVIEDO , pp.115 , 116 ; y Juicios de Residencia ... p.463 . España OVIEDO , pp.115 , 116 . Juan de Cisneros ( 27 años de edad ) Cristóbal de la Cruz España Florencia Galeote Chey ( Galeotto de ... Sebastián González de Arévalo España * Repartimiento de los naturales por Juan de Villegas ” ... Alemania ? “ Repartimiento de los naturales por Juan de Villegas ” , cit . , fol . 12vo . NOMBRE PROCEDENCIA FUENTE España Pedro Hernández de Venea ( 29 años de edad ) “ Repartimiento de los naturales por Juan de Villegas ” , cit . , fol . 8vo y OVIEDO , pp . 115 - 116 . Tomé de Ledesma ( 18 años de edad ) Málaga OVIEDO , pp . 115 - 116 ; y BRICEÑO PEROZO , Mario , Temas de historia colonial . . . , T . II , pp . 686 , 689   Diego de Leiva ( Capitán , 29 años de edad ) Lorca . España OVIEDO , pp . 115 , 116 ; y Juicios de Residencia Los Welser , T . I , p . 512 Franz Lebzelter ( 30 años de edad ) Ulm . Alemania  Juicios de Residencia ... Los Welser , T.I , p.507 . Francisco de Villegas ( 35 años de edad ) Palencia OVIEDO , pp . 115 , 116 ; y “ Repartimiento de los naturales por Juan de Villegas ” , cit . , fol . 5 . Segovia NECTARIO MARIA [source]

A juicio de residencia (literally, judgment of residence) was a judicial procedure of Castilian law and the Laws of the Indies. It consisted of this: at the termination of a public functionary's term, his performance in office was subject to review, and those with grievances against him were entitled to a hearing. This was largely an automatic procedure, and did not imply prior suspicion of misconduct. The official was not allowed to leave the place where he exercised his authority, nor to assume another office, until the conclusion of this judicial inquiry. Generally, the person charged with directing the inquiry, called the juez de residencia (residence judge), was that individual already named to succeed to the position. The penalties for conviction varied, but generally consisted of fines.

AÑO ENCOMENDERO LUGAR N° INDIOS FUENTE ENCOMENDERO ANTERIOR Gregorio García. 1566 Luis de Mesa 1566 NICO Nicolás Carrera ( Casado con “ Doña Luisa . . . ” ) Bartolomé Fernández ( casado ) Diego de Leiva “ Juicio de Residencia a Alonso Bernáldez , 1566 " , fol . 812 , 813 vo , 818 . “ Juicio de Residencia al Gobernador Don Pedro Ponce de León . " , fol . 27 vo . “ Juicio de Residencia a Alonso Bernáldez , 1566 " , fols . 818 , 818 vo . 1566 Francisco López de Triana ( Casado con Catalina Vásquez de Pantigoso ) Francisco Pacheco ( Casado con Doña Beatriz Osorio de Losada ) Pedro Gutiérrez “ Juicio de Residencia al Gobernador D. Pedro Ponce de León . ” , fol.27 . [same source]

We can figure out something about Diego de Leiva from this information.  If he was 29 when this background check was made, we know he traveled with Germans.   The German beside him in the list - Franz Lebzelter - is known to have sailed to Venezuela in 1935:

The next important expedition to leave Europe was under the command of George Hohemuth von Speir , which left Spain on October 18 , 1534 , and arrived at Coro , February 5 , 1535.  This party consisted of over 600 adventurers . Among the officers were Philip von Hutten , a nobleman from Birkenfeld ; Hieronymus Köller from Nürnberg ; Majordomus Andreas Gundelfinger , Paymaster Franz Lebzelter  from Ulm ; Nicolaus Federmann and Hans Vohlin from Augsburg, the last a nephew of the Welsers. [source]

The virulently racist publication here - of the Pennsylvania German society - doesn't even list the non-German passengers.  We know there were Spanish passengers and we know Diego de Leyva came with Germans and these Germans in particular.  So he was likely born in 1506 in Lorca. 


 
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