Saturday, December 1, 2012

Are Epiphanius and Tertullian Using the Same Anti-Marcionite Source (= Irenaeus)?

When Epiphanius baldly claims that the Marcionite canon begins with Galatians (a point never before explicitly declared) he does so by saying the following:

He (Marcion) also possesses ten Epistles of the holy apostle, the only ones he uses, but not all that is written in them. He deletes some parts of them, and has altered certain sections. He uses these two volumes (i.e. 'falsified' Gospel + 'falsified' Apostle) but has composed other treatises himself for the persons he has deceived.

ἔχει δὲ καὶ ἐπιστολὰς παρ' αὐτῷ τοῦ ἁγίου ἀποστόλου δέκα, αἷς μόναις κέχρηται, οὐ πᾶσι δὲ τοῖς ἐν αὐταῖς γεγραμμένοις, ἀλλὰ τινὰ αὐτῶν περιτέμνων, τινὰ δὲ ἀλλοιώσας κεφάλαια. ταύταις δὲ ταῖς δυσὶ βίβλοις κέχρηται ἄλλα δὲ συντάγματα ἀφ' ἑαυτοῦ συνέταξε τοῖς ὑπ' αὐτοῦ πλανωμένοις.

Here are what he calls Epistles

αἱ δὲ ἐπιστολαὶ αἱ παρ' αὐτῷ λεγόμεναί εἰσι

1. Galatians. 2. Corinthians. 3. Second Corinthians. 4. Romans. 5. Thessalonians. 6. Second Thessalonians. 7. Ephesians. 8. Colossians. 9. Philemon. 10. Philippians.

He also has parts of the so-called Epistle to the Laodiceans.  From the very canon that he retains, of the Gospel and the Pauline Epistles, I can show with God's help that Marcion is a fraud and in error, and can refute him very effectively.  For he will be refuted from the very works which he acknowledges without dispute.  From the very remnants of the Gospel and Epistles which he still has, it will be demonstrated to the wise that Christ is not foreign to the Old Testament, and hence that the prophets are not foreign to the Lord's advent— and that the apostle preaches the resurrection of the flesh and terms the prophets righteous, and Abraham, Isaac and Jacob among the recipients of salvation—and that all the teachings of God's holy church are saving, holy, and firmly founded by God on faith, knowledge, hope and doctrine.

ἔχει δὲ καὶ τῆς πρὸς Λαοδικέας λεγομένης μέρη. ἐξ οὗπερ χαρακτῆρος τοῦ παρ' αὐτῷ σῳζομένου, τοῦ τε εὐαγγελίου καὶ τῶν ἐπιστολῶν τοῦ ἀποστόλου, δεῖξαι αὐτὸν σὺν θεῷ ἔχομεν ἀπατεῶνα καὶ πεπλανημένον καὶ ἀκρότατα διελέγξαι. ἐξ αὐτῶν γὰρ ἀναμφιβόλως τῶν παρ' αὐτοῦ ὁμολογουμένων ἀνατραπήσεται. ἐκ γὰρ τῶν αὐτῶν ἔτι παρ' αὐτῷ λειψάνων τοῦ τε εὐαγγελίου καὶ τῶν ἐπιστολῶν εὑρισκομένων δειχθήσεται ὁ Χριστὸς τοῖς συνετοῖς μὴ ἀλλότριος εἶναι παλαιᾶς διαθήκης καὶ οἱ προφῆται οὖν οὐκ ἀλλότριοι ὄντες τῆς τοῦ κυρίου ἐνδημίας  καὶ ὅτι ἀνάστασιν σαρκὸς ὁ ἀπόστολος κηρύττει καὶ δικαίους τοὺς προφήτας ὀνομάζει καὶ ἐν σῳζομένοις ὑπάρχοντας τοὺς περὶ Ἀβραὰμ καὶ Ἰσαὰκ καὶ Ἰακὼβ καὶ πάντα ὅσα ἐστὶ τῆς ἁγίας τοῦ θεοῦ ἐκκλησίας σωτήριά τε καὶ ἅγια καὶ ἐκ θεοῦ ἐστηριγμένα ἔν τε τῇ πίστει καὶ ἐν τῇ γνώσει καὶ ἐν ἐλπίδι καὶ διδασκαλίᾳ.

I am also going to append the treatise which I had written against him before, a your instance, brothers, hastening to compose this one.  Some years ago, to find what falsehood this Marcion had invented and what his silly teaching was, I took up his very books which he had mutilated, his so-called Gospel and Apostolic Canon. From these two books I made a series of extracts and selections of the material which would serve to refute him, and I wrote a sort of outline for a treatise, arranging the points in order, and numbering each saying one, two, three (and so on).  And in this way I went through all of the passages in which it is apparent that, foolishly, he still retains against himself these leftover sayings of the Saviour and the apostle.  For some of them had been falsely entered by himself, in an altered form and unlike the authentic copy of the Gospel and the meaning of the apostolic canon.  But others were exactly like both the Gospel and Apostle, unchanged by Marcion but capable of completely demolishing him. By these it is shown that the Old Testament is in agreement with the New, and the New with the Old.  In turn, other sayings from the same books give intimation that Christ has come in the flesh and been made perfect man among us.  Others in turn, moreover, confess the resurrection of the dead, and that God is one almighty Lord of all, himself the maker of heaven and earth, and of everything on earth. They do not counterfeit the call of the Gospel nor, certainly, do they deny the maker and artificer of all, but make manifest the One who is plainly confessed by the Apostolic Canon and the Proclamation of the Gospel.  And here, below, is my treatise, as follows:

Παραθήσομαι δὲ καὶ ἣν ἐποιησάμην κατ' αὐτοῦ πραγματείαν πρὶν τοῦ ταύτην μου τὴν σύνταξιν ἐσπουδακέναι διὰ τῆς ὑμῶν τῶν ἀδελφῶν προτροπῆς ποιήσασθαι. ἀπὸ ἐτῶν ἱκανῶν, ἀνερευνῶν τὴν τούτου τοῦ Μαρκίωνος ἐπινενοημένην ψευδηγορίαν καὶ ληρώδη διδασκαλίαν, αὐτὰς δὴ τὰς τοῦ προειρημένου βίβλους ἃς † κέκτηται μετὰ χεῖρας λαβών, τό τε παρ' αὐτῷ λεγόμενον εὐαγγέλιον καὶ τὸ ἀποστολικὸν καλούμενον παρ' αὐτῷ ἐξανθισάμενος καὶ ἀναλεξάμενος καθ' εἱρμὸν ἀπὸ τῶν προειρημένων δύο βιβλίων τὰ ἐλέγξαι αὐτὸν δυνάμενα, ἐδάφιόν τι συντάξεως ἐποιησάμην, ἀκολούθως τάξας κεφάλαια καὶ ἐπιγράψας ἑκάστῃ ῥήσει ˉα ˉβ ˉγ. καὶ οὕτως ἕως τέλους διεξῆλθον, ἐν οἷς φαίνεται ἠλιθίως καθ' ἑαυτοῦ ἔτι ταύτας τὰς παραμεινάσας τοῦ τε σωτῆρος καὶ τοῦ ἀποστόλου λέξεις φυλάττων. αἱ μὲν γὰρ αὐτῶν παρηλλαγμένως ὑπ' αὐτοῦ ἐρρᾳδιουργήθησαν καὶ ὡς οὐκ εἶχεν τοῦ κατὰ Λουκᾶν εὐαγγελίου τὸ ἀντίγραφον οὔτε ἡ τοῦ ἀποστολικοῦ χαρακτῆρος ἔμφασις· ἄλλα δὲ φύσει ὡς ἔχει καὶ τὸ εὐαγγέλιον καὶ ὁ ἀπόστολος, μὴ ἀλλαγέντα ὑπ' αὐτοῦ, δυνάμενα δὲ αὐτὸν διελέγχειν, δι' ὧν δείκνυται ἡ παλαιὰ διαθήκη συμφωνοῦσα πρὸς τὴν νέαν καὶ ἡ καινὴ πρὸς τὴν παλαιὰν διαθήκην· ἄλλαι δὲ πάλιν λέξεις τῶν αὐτῶν βιβλίων ὑποφαίνουσαι Χριστὸν ἐν σαρκὶ ἐληλυθέναι καὶ ἐν ἡμῖν τελείως ἐνηνθρωπηκέναι· ἀλλὰ καὶ ἄλλαι πάλιν ὁμολογοῦσαι τὴν τῶν νεκρῶν ἀνάστασιν καὶ τὸν θεὸν ἕνα ὄντα κύριον πάντων παντοκράτορα, αὐτὸν ποιητὴν οὐρανοῦ καὶ γῆς καὶ πάντων τῶν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς γενομένων, καὶ οὔτε παραχαράσσουσαι τοῦ εὐαγγελίου τὴν κλῆσιν οὔτε μὴν ἀρνούμεναι τὸν ποιητὴν καὶ δημιουργὸν τῶν πάντων, ἀλλὰ δηλοῦσαι τὸν σαφῶς ὡμολογημένον ὑπὸ τοῦ χαρακτῆρος τοῦ ἀποστολικοῦ καὶ τοῦ εὐαγγελικοῦ κηρύγματος. καὶ ἔστιν τὰ ἡμῖν πεπραγματευμένα ἐν ὑποκειμένοις παρατιθέμενα, ἅτινά ἐστι τάδε

Preface to the Publication concerning Marcion’s Bible and the Refutation of It

Προοίμιον τῆς περὶ τῶν Μαρκίωνος βιβλίων ὑποθέσεώς τε καὶ ἐλέγχου

Whoever cares to understand the phoney inventions of the deceiver Marcion thoroughly and perceive the false contrivances of this victim (of the devil), should not hesitate to read this compilation. I hasten to present the material from his own Gospel which is contradictory to his villainous tampering, so that those who are willing to read the work may have this as a training-ground in acuity, for the refutation of the strange doctrines of his invention.  For the (Marcionite) canon of Luke is revelatory of their form of the Gospel: mutilated as it is, without beginning, middle or end, it looks like a cloak full of moth holes.  At the very beginning he excised everything Luke had originally composed—his 'inasmuch as many have taken in hand,' and so forth, and the material about Elizabeth and the angel's announcement to Mary the Virgin; about John and Zacharias and the birth at Bethlehem; the genealogy and the story of the baptism.  All this he cut out and turned his back on, and made this the beginning of the Gospel, 'In the fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar,' and so on.  He starts from there then and yet, again, does not go on in order. He falsifies some things, as I said, he adds others helter-skelter, not going straight on but disingenuously wandering all over the material. Thus:

Ὅτῳ φίλον ἐστὶ τὰς τοῦ ἀπατηλοῦ Μαρκίωνος νόθους ἐπινοίας ἀκριβοῦν καὶ τὰς ἐπιπλάστους τοῦ αὐτοῦ βοσκήματος μηχανὰς διαγινώσκειν, τούτῳ τῷ συλλελεγμένῳ πονήματι ἐντυχεῖν μὴ κατοκνείτω. ἐκ γὰρ τοῦ παρ' αὐτῷ εὐαγγελίου τὰ πρὸς ἀντίρρησιν τῆς πανούργου αὐτοῦ ῥᾳδιουργίας σπουδάσαντες παρεθέμεθα, ἵν' οἱ τῷ πονήματι ἐντυχεῖν ἐθέλοντες ἔχωσι τοῦτο γυμνάσιον ὀξύτητος, πρὸς ἔλεγχον τῶν ὑπ' αὐτοῦ ἐπινενοημένων ξενολεξιῶν. ὁ μὲν γὰρ χαρακτὴρ τοῦ κατὰ Λουκᾶν † σημαίνει τὸ εὐαγγέλιον· ὡς δὲ ἠκρωτηρίασται μήτε ἀρχὴν ἔχον μήτε μέσα μήτε τέλος, ἱματίου βεβρωμένου ὑπὸ πολλῶν σητῶν ἐπέχει τὸν τρόπον. εὐθὺς μὲν γὰρ ἐν τῇ ἀρχῇ πάντα τὰ ἀπ' ἀρχῆς τῷ Λουκᾷ πεπραγματευμένα τουτέστιν ὡς λέγει «ἐπειδήπερ πολλοὶ ἐπεχείρησαν» καὶ τὰ ἑξῆς καὶ τὰ περὶ τῆς Ἐλισάβετ καὶ τοῦ ἀγγέλου εὐαγγελιζομένου Μαρίαν τὴν παρθένον, Ἰωάννου τε καὶ Ζαχαρίου καὶ τῆς ἐν Βηθλεὲμ γεννήσεως, γενεαλογίας καὶ τῆς τοῦ βαπτίσματος ὑποθέσεως–ταῦτα πάντα περικόψας ἀπεπήδησεν καὶ ἀρχὴν τοῦ εὐαγγελίου ἔταξε ταύτην «ἐν τῷ πεντεκαιδεκάτῳ ἔτει Τιβερίου Καίσαρος» καὶ τὰ ἑξῆς. ἐντεῦθεν οὖν οὗτος ἄρχεται καὶ οὐ καθ' εἱρμὸν πάλιν ἐπιμένει, ἀλλὰ τὰ μὲν ὡς προεῖπον παρακόπτει, τὰ δὲ προστίθησιν ἄνω κάτω, οὐκ ὀρθῶς βαδίζων ἀλλὰ ἐρρᾳδιουργημένως τὰ πάντα περινοστεύων, καὶ ἔστιν

1. 'Go show thyself unto the priest, and offer for thy cleansing, according as Moses commanded—that this may be a testimony unto you,' instead of the Saviour's 'for a testimony unto them.'
ˉα. «Ἀπελθὼν δεῖξον σεαυτὸν τῷ ἱερεῖ καὶ προσένεγκε περὶ τοῦ καθαρισμοῦ σου, καθὼς προσέταξε Μωυσῆς»· «ἵνα ᾖ μαρτύριον τοῦτο ὑμῖν» ἀνθ' οὗ εἶπεν ὁ σωτήρ «εἰς μαρτύριον αὐτοῖς»
2. 'But that ye may know that the Son of Man hath power to forgive sins upon earth.'
ˉβ. «Ἵνα δὲ εἰδῆτε ὅτι ἐξουσίαν ἔχει ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἀφιέναι ἁμαρτίας ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς»
3. 'The Son of Man is lord also of the Sabbath.'
. ˉγ. «Κύριός ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ τοῦ σαββάτου»
4. 'Judas Iscariot, which was a betrayer.' Instead of, 'He came down with them,' he has, 'He came down among them.'
ˉδ. «Ἰούδαν Ἰσκαριώτην, ὃς ἐγένετο προδότης». ἀντὶ δὲ τοῦ «κατέβη μετ' αὐτῶν» ἔχει «κατέβη ἐν αὐτοῖς»
5. 'And the whole multitude sought to touch him. And he lifted up his eyes,' and so forth.
. ˉε. «Καὶ πᾶς ὁ ὄχλος ἐζήτει ἅπτεσθαι αὐτοῦ. καὶ αὐτὸς ἐπάρας τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ» καὶ τὰ ἑξῆς
6. 'In the like manner did your fathers unto the prophets.'
ˉ . «Κατὰ τὰ αὐτὰ ἐποίουν τοῖς προφήταις οἱ πατέρες ὑμῶν»
7. 'I say unto you, I have not found so great faith, no, not in Israel.'
ˉζ. «Λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν, τοσαύτην πίστιν οὐδὲ ἐν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ εὗρον»
8. 'Blessed is he who shall not be offended in me,' is altered. For he had it as though it refers to John.
ˉη. Παρηλλαγμένον τό «μακάριος ὃς οὐ μὴ σκανδαλισθῇ ἐν ἐμοί»· εἶχε γὰρ ὡς πρὸς Ἰωάννην
9. 'He it is of whom it is written, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face.'
ˉθ. «Αὐτός ἐστι περὶ οὗ γέγραπται· ἰδού, ἀποστέλλω τὸν ἄγγελόν μου πρὸ προσώπου σου»
10. 'And entering into the Pharisee's house he reclined at table. And the woman which was a sinner, standing at his feet behind him, washed his feet with her tears, and wiped and kissed them.'
9 ˉι. «Καὶ εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ Φαρισαίου κατεκλίθη. ἡ δὲ γυνὴ στᾶσα ὀπίσω ἡ ἁμαρτωλὸς παρὰ τοὺς πόδας ἔβρεξε τοῖς δάκρυσι τοὺς πόδας καὶ ἤλειψεν καὶ κατεφίλει»
11. And again, 'She hath washed my feet with her tears, and wiped and kissed them.'
ˉιˉα. Καὶ πάλιν «αὕτη τοῖς δάκρυσιν ἔβρεξεν τοὺς πόδας μου καὶ ἤλειψεν καὶ κατεφίλει»
12. He did not have, 'His mother and his brethren,' but only, 'Thy mother and thy brethren.'
ˉιˉβ. Οὐκ εἶχεν «ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ αὐτοῦ», ἀλλὰ μόνον «ἡ μήτηρ σου καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοί σου»
13. 'As they sailed he fell asleep. Then he arose and rebuked the wind and the sea.'
ˉιˉγ. «Πλεόντων αὐτῶν ἀφύπνωσεν· ὁ δὲ ἐγερθεὶς ἐπετίμησε τῷ ἀνέμῳ καὶ τῇ θαλάσσῃ»
14. 'And it came to pass as they went the people thronged him, and a woman touched him, and was healed of her blood. And the Lord said, Who touched me?' And again, 'Someone hath touched me; for I perceive that virtue hath gone out of me.'
ˉιˉδ. «Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ ὑπάγειν αὐτούς, συνέπνιγον αὐτὸν οἱ ὄχλοι. καὶ γυνὴ ἁψαμένη αὐτοῦ ἰάθη τοῦ αἵματος· καὶ εἶπεν ὁ κύριος· τίς μου ἥψατο;» καὶ πάλιν· «ἥψατό μού τις. καὶ γὰρ ἔγνων δύναμιν ἐξελθοῦσαν ἀπ' ἐμοῦ»
15. 'Looking up to heaven he pronounced a blessing upon them.'
ˉιˉε. «Ἀναβλέψας εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν εὐλόγησεν ἐπ' αὐτούς»
16. 'Saying, The Son of Man must suffer many things, and be slain, and be raised after three days.'

17. 'And, behold, there were talking with him two men, Elijah and Moses in glory.'

18. 'Out of the cloud, a voice, This is my beloved Son.'

19. 'I besought thy disciples.' But in addition to, 'And they could not cast it out,' he had, 'And he said to them, O faithless generation, how long shall I suffer you?'

20. 'For the Son of Man shall be delivered into the hands of men.'

21. 'Have ye not read so much as this, what David did: he went into the house of God.'

22. 'I thank thee, Lord of heaven.'But he did not have, 'and earth,' nor did he have, 'Father.' He is shown up, however; for further down he had, 'Even so, Father.'

23. He said to the lawyer, 'What is written in the Law?' And after the lawyer's answer he replied, 'Thou hast answered right; this do, and thou shalt live.'

24. And he said, 'Which of you shall have a friend, and shall go unto him at midnight, asking three loaves?' And then, 'Ask, and it shall be given. If a son shall ask a fish any of you that is a father, will he for a fish give him a serpent, or a scorpion for an egg? If, then, ye evil men know of good gifts, how much more the Father?'

25. The saying about Jonah the prophet has been gutted; Marcion had, 'This generation, no sign shall be given it.' But he did not have anything about Nineveh, the queen of the south, and Solomon.

26. Instead of, 'Ye pass over the judgment of God,' he had, 'Ye pass over the calling of God.'

27. 'Woe unto you, for ye build the sepulchres of the prophets, and your fathers killed them.'

28. He did not have, 'Therefore said the wisdom of God, I send unto them prophets,' and the statement that the blood of Zacharias, Abel and the prophets will be required of this generation.

29. 'I say unto my friends, Be not afraid of them that kill the body. Fear him which, after he hath killed, hath authority to cast into hell.' But he did not have, 'Are not five sparrows sold for two farthings, and not one of them is forgotten before God?'

30. Instead of, 'He shall confess before the angels of God,' Marcion says, 'before God.'

31. He does not have, 'God doth clothe the grass.'

32. 'And your Father knoweth ye have need of these things,' physical things, of course.

33. 'But seek ye the kingdom of God, and all these things shall be added unto you.'

34. Instead of, 'Your Father,' Marcion had, 'Father.'

35. Instead of, 'In the second or third watch,' he had, 'in the evening watch.'

36. 'The Lord of that servant will come and will cut him in sunder, and will appoint his portion with the unbelievers.'

37. 'Lest he hale thee to the judge and the judge deliver thee to the officer.'

38. There is a falsification from 'There came some that told him of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices' down to the place where he speaks of the eighteen who died in the tower at Siloam; and of 'Except ye repent' and the rest until the parable of the fig tree of which the cultivator said, 'I am digging about it and dunging it, and if it bear no fruit, cut it down.'

39. 'This daughter of Abraham, whom Satan hath bound.'

40. Again, he falsified, 'Then ye shall see Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets, in the kingdom of God.' In place of this he put, 'When ye see all the righteous in the kingdom of God and yourselves thrust'—but he put, 'kept'—'out.' 'There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.'

41. Again, he falsified, 'They shall come from the east and from the west, and shall sit down in the kingdom,' 'The last shall be first,' and 'The Pharisees came saying, Get thee out and depart, for Herod will kill thee'; also, 'He said, Go ye, and tell that fox,' until the words, 'It cannot be that a prophet perish out of Jerusalem,' and, 'Jerusalem, Jerusalem, which killest the prophets and stonest them that are sent, Often would I have gathered, as a hen, thy children,' 'Your house is left unto you desolate,' and, 'Ye shall not see me until ye shall say, Blessed.'
42. Again, he falsified the entire parable of the two sons, the one who took his share of the property and spent it in dissipation, and the other.
43. 'The Law and the prophets were until John, and every man presseth into it.'
44. The story of the rich man, and that Lazarus the beggar was carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom.
45. 'But now he is comforted,' again meaning this same Lazarus.
46. Abraham said, 'They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them, since neither will they hear him that is risen from the dead.'
47. He falsified, 'Say, We are unprofitable servants: we have done that which was our duty to do.'
48. When the ten lepers met him. Marcion excised a great deal and wrote, 'He sent them away, saying, Show yourselves unto the priests'; and he substituted different words for others and said, 'Many lepers were in the day of Elisha the prophet, and none was cleansed, saving Naaman the Syrian.'
49. 'The days will come when ye shall desire to see one of the days of the Son of Man.'
50. 'One said unto him, Good master, what shall I do to inherit eternal life? He replied, Call not thou me good. One is good, God.' Marcion added, 'the Father,' and instead of, 'Thou knowest the commandments,' says, 'I know the commandments.'
51. 'And it came to pass that as he was come nigh unto Jericho, a blind man cried, Jesus, thou Son of David, have mercy on me. And when he was healed, he said, Thy faith hath saved thee.'
52. Marcion falsified, 'He took unto him the twelve, and said, Behold, we go up to Jerusalem, and all things that are written in the prophets concerning the Son of Man shall be accomplished. For he shall be delivered and killed, and the third day he shall rise again.' He falsified the whole of this.
53. He falsified the passage about the ass and Bethphage, and the one about the city and the temple, because of the scripture, 'My house shall be called an house of prayer, but ye make it a den of thieves.'
54. 'And they sought to lay hands on him and they were afraid.'
55. Again, he excised the material about the vineyard which was let out to husbandmen, and the verse, 'What is this, then, The stone which the builders rejected?'
56. He excised, 'Now that the dead are raised, even Moses showed at the bush, in calling the Lord the God of Abraham and Isaac and Jacob. But he is a God of the living, not of the dead.'
57. He did not have the following: 'Now that the dead are raised, even Moses showed, saying that the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob is God of the living.'
58. Again he falsified, 'There shall not an hair of your head perish.'
59. Again, he falsified the following: 'Then let them which are in Judea flee to the mountains,' and so on, because of the words subjoined in the text, 'until all things that are written be fulfilled.'
60. 'He communed with the captains how he might deliver him unto them.'
61. 'And he said unto Peter and the rest, Go and prepare that we may eat the passover.'
62. 'And he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him, and he said, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer.'
63. He falsified, 'I will not any more eat thereof until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.'
64. He falsified 'When I sent you, lacked ye anything,' and so on, because of the words, 'This also that is written must be accomplished, And he was numbered among the transgressors.'
65. 'He was withdrawn from them about a stone’s cast, and kneeled down, and prayed.'
66. 'And Judas drew near to kiss him, and said ...'
67. He falsified what Peter did when he struck the servant of the high priest and cut off his ear.
68. 'They that held him mocked him, smiting and striking him and saying, Prophesy, who is it that smote thee?'
69. After, 'We found this fellow perverting the nation,' Marcion added, 'and destroying the Law and the prophets.'
70. The addition after 'forbidding to give tribute' is 'and turning away the wives and children.'
71. 'And when they were come unto a place called Place of a Skull they crucified him and parted his garments, and the sun was darkened.'
72. Marcion falsified the words, 'Today thou shalt be with me in paradise.'
73. 'And when he had cried with a loud voice he gave up the ghost.'
74. 'And, lo, a man named Joseph took the body down, wrapped it in linen and laid it in a sepulchre that was hewn out of the rock.'
75. 'And the women returned and rested the sabbath day according to the Law.'
76. 'The men in shining garments said, Why seek ye the living among the dead? He is risen; remember all that he spake when he was yet with you, that the Son of Man must suffer and be delivered.'
77. He falsified what Christ said to Cleopas and the other when he met them, 'O fools, and slow to believe all that the prophets have spoken: Ought not he to have suffered these things?' And instead of, 'what the prophets have spoken,' he put, 'what I said unto you.' But he is shown up since, 'When he broke the bread their eyes were opened and they knew him.'
78. 'Why are ye troubled? Behold my hands and my feet, for a spirit hath not bones, as ye see me have.'
And in further opposition to this heresiarch I also attach, to this arrangement (of texts) which has been laboriously accumulated against him by myself, such other texts as I find in his works, as in an arbitrary version of the apostle Paul's epistles; not all of them but some of them—(I have listed their names in the order of his Apostolic Canon at the end of the complete work)—and these mutilated as usual by his rascality.

(They are) remains of the truth which he preserves as, to be honest, there are remains of the true Gospel in his Gospel in name which I have given above. All the same, he has adulterated everything with fearful ingenuity. From the Epistle to the Romans, number four in Marcion's canon but number one in the Apostolic Canon.
1(28). 'As many as have sinned without law shall also perish without law, and as many as have sinned in the Law shall be judged by the Law. For not the hearers of the Law are just before God, but the doers of the Law shall be justified.'
2(29). 'Circumcision verily profiteth if thou keep the Law; but if thou be a breaker of the Law, thy circumcision is made uncircumcision.'
3(30). 'Which hast the form of knowledge and of the truth in the Law.'
4(31). 'For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly.'
5(32). 'Wherefore the Law is holy, and the commandment holy and just and good.'
6(33). 'That the requirement of the Law might be fulfilled in us.'
7(34). 'For Christ is the fulfilment of the Law for righteousness to everyone that believeth.'
8(35). 'He that loveth his neighbour hath fulfilled the Law.'
The First Epistle to the Thessalonians, number five in Marcion's canon, but number eight in ours.
The Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, number six in Marcion's canon, but number nine in ours.
From the Epistle to Ephesians, number seven in Marcion's canon, but number five in ours.
1(36) 'Remember that ye, being in time past gentiles, who are called uncircumcision by that which is called the circumcision in the flesh made by hands; that at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world. But now in Christ Jesus ye who sometimes were far off are made nigh by his blood. For he is our peace, who hath made both one,' and so on.
2(37). 'Wherefore he saith, Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall give thee light.'
3(38). 'For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and shall be joined unto his wife, and they two shall be one flesh,' minus the phrase, 'unto his wife.'
From the Epistle to the Colossians, number eight in Marcion's canon, but number seven in ours.
1(39). 'Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon and sabbath days, which are a shadow of things to come.'
The Epistle to Philemon, number nine in Marcion's canon, but number thirteen, or even fourteen, in ours.
The Epistle to the Philippians, number ten in Marcion's canon, but number six in ours.
From the Epistle to the Laodiceans, number eleven in Marcion's canon.
1(40). '(There is) one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in all.'
From the Epistle to the Galatians, number one in Marcion's canon, but number four in ours.
1. 'Learn that the just shall live by faith. For as many as are under the Law are under a curse; but, The man that doeth them shall live by them.'
2. 'Cursed is everyone that hangeth upon a tree; but he that is of promise is by the freewoman.'
3. 'I testify again that a man that is circumcised is a debtor to do the whole Law.'
4. In place of, 'A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump,' he put, 'corrupteth the whole lump.'
5. 'For all the Law is fulfilled by you; thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.'
6. 'Now the works of the flesh are manifest which are these: Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, factions, envyings, drunkenness, revellings—of the which I tell you before, as I have also told you in time past, that they which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God.'
7. 'They that are Christ's have crucified the flesh with the affections and lusts.'
8. 'For neither do they themselves who are circumcised (now) keep the Law.'
From the First Epistle to the Corinthians, number two in Marcion's own canon and in ours.
1(9). 'For it is written, I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and will bring to naught the understanding of the prudent.'
2(10). 'That, according as it is written, He that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord.'
3(11). 'Of the first beings of this world that come to naught.'
4(12). 'For it is written, He taketh the wise in their own craftiness.' And again, 'The Lord knoweth the thoughts of men, that they are vain.'
5(13). 'For even Christ our passover is sacrificed.'
6(14). 'Know ye not that he which is joined to an harlot is one body? For two, saith he, shall be one flesh.'
7(15). Given in an altered form. In place of, 'in the Law,' he says 'in the Law of Moses.' But before this he says, 'Or saith not the Law the same also?'
8(16). 'Doth God take care for oxen?'
9(17). 'Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant how that our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea, and did all eat the same spiritual meat, and did all drink the same spiritual drink. For they drank of a spiritual rock that followed them, and that rock was Christ. But with many of them God was not well pleased. Now these things were our examples, to the intent we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted. Neither be ye idolaters as were some of them; as it is written, The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play. Neither let us tempt Christ,” until the words, 'These things happened unto them for examples, and they were written for us,' and so on.
10(18). 'What say I then? That sacrificial meat is anything, or that that which is offered in sacrifice to idols is anything? But the things which they sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils and not to God.' But Marcion added, 'Sacrificial meat.'
11(19). 'A man ought not to have long hair, forasmuch as he is the image and glory of God.'
12(20). 'But God hath composed the body.'
13(21). Marcion has erroneously added the words, 'on the Law's account,' after, 'Yet in the church I had rather speak five words with my understanding.'
14(22). 'In the Law it is written, With men of other tongues and other lips will I speak unto this people.'
15(23). 'Let your women keep silence in the church; For it is not permitted unto them to speak; but they are commanded to be under obedience, as also saith the Law.'
16(24). On resurrection of the dead: 'Brethren, I make known unto you the gospel which I preached unto you.'  Also, 'If Christ be not raised, it is in vain,' and so on. 'So we preach, and so ye believed ... that Christ died, and was buried, and rose again the third day .... When this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory.' From the Second Epistle to the Corinthians, number three in Marcion's canon and ours.
1(25). 'For all the promises of God have their Yea in him; therefore through him we utter Amen to God.'
2(26). 'For we preach not ourselves, but Christ Jesus the Lord; and ourselves your servants through Jesus. For God who commanded the light to shine out of darkness . ..'
3(27). 'We having the same Spirit of faith also believe and therefore speak.' But he excised, 'according as it is written.'
This is Marcion's corrupt compilation, containing a version and form of the Gospel according to Luke, and an incomplete one of the apostle Paul—not of all his epistles but simply of Romans, Ephesians, Colossians, Laodiceans, Galatians, First and Second Corinthians, First and Second Thessalonians, Philemon and Philippians. (There is no version) of First and Second TimothyTitus, and Hebrews in his scripture at all, and even the epistles that are there have been mutilated, since they are not all there but are counterfeits.  And I found that this compilation had been tampered with throughout, and had supplemental material added in certain passages—not for any use, but for inferior, harmful strange sayings against the sound faith, fictitious creatures of Marcion’s cracked brain.  I have made this laborious, searching compilation from the scripture he has chosen, Paul and the Gospel according to Luke, so that all who are attempting to contradict his imposture may understand that the altered sayings have been fraudulently inserted, and that any not in their proper places have been stolen from them by his audacity. For the oaf thought that only these run counter to his false notion.

But there is a third work of my scholarship: the compilation of whatever material he and we have in common, and whose meaning is the Saviour's incarnation and his testimony to the agreement of the New Testament with the Old—and the acknowledgment in the Gospel, by the Son of God, that God is the maker of heaven and earth and the same God who spoke in the Law and the prophets, and that this God is his own Father. And here is the brief arrangement of that work of mine, transcribed word for word by myself from copies of Marcion in the form of scholia with exegetical comments, to serve as an outline. But so that the difficult things in it will not be obscure to some and fail to be understood, I shall in turn explain of the several entries in order—I mean the first entry, the second, the third (and so on)—the reason why each saying was selected and transferred here. I begin as follows.

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Stephan Huller's Observations by Stephan Huller
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